Biographical Index M - Z

SEE ALSO Borgias Home I The Borgias Historical Profiles


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Who's who in the saga of the Borgias? Historical chronicles and correspondence are riddled with different spellings of proper names, regional versions of the same name, and duplicate names of members of the same family. This guide lists the name, dates, and description of people involved in the events depicted in the Showtime Series*

HISTORICAL FIGURE BORN - DIED HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE


Machiavelli, Niccolo 1469 - 1527 Florentine diplomat. Served as Ambassador to Cesare Borgia in 1502 and 1503
Manfredi, Astorre 1482 - 1501 Ruler of Faenza, which he surrendered to Cesare Borgia in 1501
Maximilian I, Emperor 1459 - 1519 Maximilian I, Habsburg dynasty, Holy Roman Emperor from 1493. Joined League against the French (League of Venice ) in 1495
Medici, Giovanni de' 1475 - 1521 Cardinal, Son of Lorenzo de Medici. Generally favorable to the Borgias, exiled from Florence in 1494, became pope in 1512 (Leo X)
Medici, Lorenzo de' 1449 - 1492 "The Magnificent" de facto duke of Florence from 1469, leading Italian prince of the age, maintained balance of power in Italy by expert diplomacy that kept foreign invasion at bay
Medici, Piero de' 1472 - 1503 (Pietro) "the Unfortunate" succeeded his father Lorenzo in 1492. Ousted from power and riven from Florence in uprising against Medici rule in 1494
Michelotto, Don unknown - 1508 (Michele de Corella, Michelotto Coreglia) Spanish lieutenant of Cesare Borgia and notorious executioner for the Borgias
Montefeltro, Guidobaldo da 1472 - 1508 Duke of Urbino, son of famed condottiero-prince Federico da Montefeltro, co-captained campaign against the Orsini in 1495-6, was ousted from Urbino by Cesare in the Borgia conquest of the Romagna in 1502. Married to Elisabetta Gonzaga, had no issue. The duchy went to his nephew and heir Francesco Maria della Rovere in 1508
Orsini, Giovanni Battista died 1503 Cardinal, generally friendly to Alexander VI during pontificate, but arrested in January, 1503, and died soon after in Castel Sant'Angelo under what were seen as suspicious circumstances at the time, and in view of the Orsini complicity in plots against Cesare
Orsini, Gentile Virginio died 1497 Ruler of Monterotondo and Bracciano. Created Grand Constable of Naples in 1494, but betrayed Alfonso II and Alexander VI by surrendering Bracciano to the French shortly after. Captured and imprisoned by Neapolitans in 1496, and died in captivity
Orsini, Paolo died 1503 Cousin of Gentile Virginio orsini and fought for Cesare Borgia before arrest and execution at Sinigallia
Petrucci, Pandolfo 1452 - 1512 Ruler of Siena between 1497 and 1512, usurped the power of the republic and became its absolute signore, was allied with those who attempted to overthrow Cesare, but did not attend the diet of Maggione, escaped Cesare's revenge on his enemies
Piccolomini, Francesco Todeschini 1440 - 1503 Cardinal of Siena, acted as envoy to King Charles VIII of France, on Alexander VI's death was elected Pope Pius III, reigned only for one month
Raffaelo, Don died 1500 Raffaelo di Arena, Chapel Deacon for Alexander VI
della Rovere, Giovanni 1457 - 1501 Nephew of Pope Sixtus IV and younger brother of Giuliano della Rovere, created City Prefect and given lordship of Sinigallia by Sixtus IV, married to Giovanna da Montefeltro (sister of Guidobaldo, duke of Urbino)
della Rovere, Giuliano 1443 - 1513 nephew of Pope Sixtus IV, was created Cardinal in 1471, bitter ene,y of Alexander VI, against whom he conspired with the French in 1494. When Charles VIII left Italy in 1495, Giuliano della Rovere went into exile in France, only returning to Rome after Alexander VI's death. Became Pope as Julius II in 1503, and thereafter destroyed Borgia power, while retaining papal authority in central Italy
Sancia of Aragon 1478 - 1505 Created Duchess of Squillace upon her marriage to Jofre Borgia in 1494, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso (Duke of Calabria until 1494, King of Naples 1494-1495, sister of Alfonso of Bisceglie, friend of Lucrezia Borgia and probable lover of Cesare and Juan Borgia while living in Rome, had no issue and died in 1505
Sanseverino, Giovanni Francesco died 1502 Count of Caiazzo, one of five son of the famous condottiero Roberto Sanseverino, schemed with Ludovico Sforza against Alexander VI in 1494, but took part in the French expedition to Italy in 1501
Sanuto, Marino 1466 - 1502 Venetian Ambassador and diarist at Rome during Alexander VI's pontificate
Savonarola, Fra Girolamo 1452 - 1498 Dominican Superior in charge of Convent San Marco in Florence. Demagogue and reformer, preached in Florence after 1490, and virtually controled the city from the expulsion of the Medici until his own execution by burning in 1498, clashed with Alexander VI and was excommunicated in 1497
Sforza, Ascanio 1455 - 1505 Brother of Ludovico Sforza, created cardinal in 1484, helped secure Rodrigo Borgia's election as Alexander VI in 1492 and was rewarded with Vice-Chancellorship. Influence later declined, and in 1500 he was taken to France with Ludovico when King Louis XII seized Milan. Returned to Rome on Alexander VI's death
Sforza, Caterina 1463 - 1509 Illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, duke of Milan, neice of Ascanio and Ludovico Sforza, wife of Girolamo Riario, after whose death she retained possession of Forli and Imola until Cesare Borgia captured them in 1499 and 1500
Sforza, Gian Galeazzo 1469 - 1494 Suceeded father as duke of Milan in 1476, but control of government was held by uncle Ludovico as regent. Death in 1494 probably the result of poisoning on orders from Ludovico, who had secretly just bought the ducal investiture from Emperor Maximilian I
Sforza, Giovanni 1469 - 1510 Vicar of Pesar, related to Ascanio and Ludovico Sforza. Married Lucrezia Borgia in 1493, but marriage was declared void in 1497. Driven from Pesaro by Cesare Borgia in 1500, but regained the city after Alexander VI's death
Sforza, Ludovico 1452 - 1508 Brother of Ascanio and uncle of Gian Galeazzo Sforza. Regent of Milan from 1476 to 1494, and thereafter Duke until deposed by Louis XII in 1499. Imprisoned in France for the rest of his life
Strozzi, Ercole 1473 - 1508 Italian poet and humanist of Ferrara. Became great admirer of Lucrezia Borgia following her arrival in Ferrara in 1502, and was murdered mysteriously in 1508
Varano, Giulio Cesare died 1502 Vicar of Camerino, overthrown in 1502 by Cesare Borgia. Died in prison, but family recovered Camerino after Alexander VI's death
Vitelli, Vitellozzo died 1503 Ruler of Citta di Castello. Allied with Orsini against Borgias in 1497, but joined as a captain for Cesare in 1499. After conspiring to overthrow him in 1502, was seized at Sinigallia and executed there in early 1503






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