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SEE ALSO Borgias Home I Borgias Historical Profiles I The Italian City-States I The Papal States I The Discussion Forum I The Italian Wars I 15th Century Italy



Page Symbol The Major Kingdoms and Empires of Europe c. 1492
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  • During the reign of Pope Alexander VI (1492 - 1503) the various western kingdoms closely resembled the map shown below.
  • The Holy Roman Empire's possessions would change during the course of the 15th century, especially in Austria and Italy.
  • By the time of Charles V (elected 1519), the empire would reach its largest extent. His domain included the Netherlands, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and Spanish America.


Map of Europe circa 1492




Kingdom of England
House of Tudor
King Henry VII(reigned 22 August 1485 - 21 April 1509)

Kingdom of France
House of Valois, Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
King Charles VIII (reigned 30 August 1483 – 7 April 1498)
King Louis XII (reigned 7 April 1498 - 1 January 1515)

Kingdom of Spain
House of Trastamara - United Kingdoms of Aragon and Castile,
Kings Ferdinand II and Isabella (reigned 11 December 1474 - 23 January 1516)

Holy Roman Empire
House of Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor
King of the Romans Frederick III (reigned 2 February 1440 – 19 August 1493)
King of the Romans Maximilian I (reigned 19 August 1493 - 12 January 1519)

Kingdom of Hungary
House of Hunyadi, King of Hungary and Croatia
King Matthias Corvinus (reigned 20 January 1458 - 6 April 1490)

Ottoman Empire
House of Osman, Sultan
Sultan Mehmet II (reigned 1451 - 1481)
Sultan Bayezid II (reigned 1481 - 1512)




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English knights of the 15th Century - jousting

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Richmond Palace (18th century engraving) built during
the reign of Henry VII
chateau de blois
Chateau de Blois, Loire Valley - favorite royal residence of Louis XII
Joust - French knights
French knights -15th Century Joust
Segovia, Spain
Cathedral in center, Alcazar of Segovia just beyond
Ferdinand and Isabella
Ferdinand and Isabella
International Relations - THE  BORGIAS   wiki
Courtyard, castle at Innsbruck (by Albrecht Durer)
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Holy Roman Empire, knights of the 15th Century
Turkish Ottoman Galley warship
Ottoman Turkish galley
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Topkapi Palace, Istanbul