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POPE INNOCENT VIII




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POPE INNOCENT VIII STATS
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Name: Givanni Batista Ciba
Born: 1432
Home town: Genoa
Died: 25 July 1492
Position: Held Papacy from 29 August 1484 - 25 July 1492
House of:
Nickname: Father of the Fatherland or Padre della patria (due to the number of illegitimate children he had).
Personality type: Easygoing and ineffective
Hobbies:
Strength(s):
Weakness(es):
Quirks: Created new titles that were discreetly auctioned.



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POPE INNOCENT VIII BIO
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The conclave following Sixtus IV's death was a hotbed of intrigue, with his nephew Giuliana della Rovere (later Julius II), aware that he himself stood no chance, lobbying for the election of someone he could dominate. The man chosen, after endorsing the petitions of several cardinals for favours in his cell the night before, was the easygoing but ineffective Giovanni Batista Cibo. The son of a Roman senator, he was born in Genoa in 1432, spent his youth at the court of Naples and then studied at Padua and Rome, took orders and, through the favour of Cardinal Calandrini, was made bishop of Savona in 1467 and then Molfetta in1472, and was created a cardinal by Sixtus IV in 1473. He had little experience of politics, and having fathered several illegitimate children before ordination, he now provided for them by marriage into princely houses.

Irresolute, lax, chronically ill, but personnally affable as he was, there could be no question of church reform in Innocent's reign. His court, like Sixtus IV's was as colourful and loose as any Italian's prince's, and his cardinals, mostly Sixtus's creations, were worldly grands seigneurs. He inherited vast debts from Sixtus, and the financial state of the curia continued to get worse. To alleviate it he resorted to the expedient of creating countless unneeded curial and other offices and then selling them to the highest bidder. His solvency was not helping by his siding in 1485, persuaded by Giuliano, with the rebellious Neapolitan barons against Ferdinand I of Naples (1458-94), who refused to pay the papal dues. The results were disastrous for Rome and the papal state, and he had to accept a disadvantageous peace in August 1486. Freed for a time from Giuliano's influence, he now made an alliance with Lorenzo de Medici, to whose daughter Maddalena he married his undeserving son Franceschetto, and whose thirteen year old son Giovanni (later Pope Leo X) he raised to the cardinalate. Hostilities with Naples, however, broke out afresh in 1489, since Ferdinand failed to fulfil his side of the peace, and in September Innocent excommunicated and deposed him. A reconciliation was patched up in January 1492, but the papacy lost L'Aquila and most of its political prestige.

The attempts Innocent made to rally action to meet the Turkish menace proved abortive. The fact that he was the first pope to enter into relations with the Ottoman Empire may have contributed to this. In 1489 he agreed to an arrangement with the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512) whereby, in return for 40,000 ducats yearly and the gift of the Holy Lance (supposed to have pierced Christ's side at his crucifixion), he detained his fugitive brother and potential rival Djem in close confinement at Rome. To escape from Bayezid, Djem had fled to Rhodes, and the grand master of the Knights of Saint John, in return for a cardinal's hat, handed him over to the pope, who was glad to have such an important hostage for the sultan's good behaviour.

In 1486 Innocent formally recognised Henry VII as rightful king of England on the threefold ground of conquest, inheritance, and national choice. He is also remembered both for his bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1494) ordering the Inquisition in Germany to proceed with the utmost severity against supposed witches, which gave a powerful stimulus to the persecution of witchcraft, and for his ban (1486) on the discussion and study of the theses ofPico della Mirandola (1463-94), the exponent of Renaissance Platonism. As his ineffective reign drew to a close, he and Rome were filled with jubilation by the news of the expulsion of the Moors from Granada (2 January 1492), but the triumph was due toFerdinand V andIsabella of Castile (1474-1504), not to the Holy See; in recognition of this he awarded Ferdinand and his successors the title of 'Catholic Kings'. As pope he was incapable of exercising firm control over Rome and left the papal states in anarchy, and his death was the signal for an outbreak of unprecedented violence and disorder.

On Innocent's deathbed there was an apparent attempt to revive him with blood transfusions from three young male children (who also died in the process).




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CONTEMPORARY VOICES
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POPE INNOCENT VIII QUOTES
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POPE INNOCENT VIII TRIVIA
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  • Had two illegitimate children but sources say the number was sixteen with fourteen being presented as nephews the title of of "Father of the Fatherland" was suggested.
  • Issued Bull on the full text of the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (Henry VIII's parents).
  • During what is known as the Little Ice Age, Innocent VIII, in his papal bull, Summis desiderantes (5 December, 1484) instigated severe measures against magicians and witches in Germany. The grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and mass starvation was blamed on witches. He issued the bull to inquisitors Heinrich Kramer and Jacobus Sprenger, to systemize the persecution of witches.


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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
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BOOKS & PUBLICATIONS WEBSITES & MEDIA
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Popes by JND Kelly
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Started By Thread Subject Replies Last Post
Kittywake09 25 July 1492 - Pope Innocent VIII died 0 Jul 25 2011, 12:07 AM EDT by Kittywake09
Thread started: Jul 25 2011, 12:07 AM EDT  Watch
Innocent VIII was easygoing and ineffective he also created new titles that were discreetly auctioned.

Had two illegitimate children but sources say the number was sixteen with fourteen being presented as nephews the title of of "Father of the Fatherland" was suggested.

In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo to Maddalena de' Medici, the natural daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X.

On his deathbed Innocent there was an apparent attempt to revive him with blood transfusions from three young male children (who also died in the process).

Kittywake09 5 Dec 1494 - Pope Innocent VIII - Bull ordering Inquisition in Germany 1 Dec 5 2010, 3:50 PM EST by poncianito
Thread started: Dec 5 2010, 12:01 AM EST  Watch
On 5 December 1494 issued his bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1494) ordering the Inquisition in Germany to proceed with the utmost severity against supposed witches, which gave a powerful stimulus to the persecution of witchcraft, and for his ban (1486) on the discussion and study of the theses of Pico della Mirandola (1463-94), the exponent of Renaissance Platonism. As his ineffective reign drew to a close, he and Rome were filled with jubilation by the news of the expulsion of the Moors from Granada (2 January 1492), but the triumph was due to Ferdinand V and Isabella of Castile (1474-1504), not to the Holy See; in recognition of this he awarded Ferdinand and his successors the title of 'Catholic Kings'. As pope he was incapable of exercising firm control over Rome and left the papal states in anarchy, and his death was the signal for an outbreak of unprecedented violence and disorder.

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poncianito Pope Innocent VIII 3 Nov 6 2010, 7:10 AM EDT by Kittywake09
Thread started: Nov 5 2010, 8:12 PM EDT  Watch
One can say that Innocent VIII was not interested in anything more of less religious and the " crusader spirit" In Europe over the fall of the last bastion of the Moors in Granada, Spain, which happened under his pontificate on 2 January 1492, was certainly not due to anything he did. Nevertheless, he celebrated it as a symbol of a triumph of Christian arms over the infidel. In Rome bells rang, rites if thanksgiving and nocturnal candlelit processions took place coinciding with that year's Carnival. That was enough of a reason to make those festivities, by now traditionally beloved by the people, the occasion of events such as the games in Piazza Navona, masquerades along the Corso, Spanish bull hunts and ancient scenic performances, all arranged by Cardinal Raffaele Riario.
Innocent did not do so much else for Rome and the patronage for the arts declined. It was true that churches were restored, including work at S. Maria della Pace and the rebuilding of S. Maria in via Lata, and the artist such as Pinturicchio and Mantegna decorated the Vatican residence with their frescoes that were later, unfortunately, destroyed. But no doubt most of the money wound up in the pockets of the children and grandchildren of the pope, caught up with feasts and hunts for which the Villa Magliana on the via di Porto, began to be a splendid theater.
Innocent VIII died on 25 July 1492, and was buried in the basilica of St.Peter in a sumptuous bronze monument by Antonio Pollaiolo.
After the funeral of Innocent VIII, twenty-three cardinals met in conclave in Sistine Chapel at St. Peter's on 6 August 1492. By the ballot held during the night between 10th and 11th of August, Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia was elected, but rumors of simony overshadowed his election.

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