SEE ALSO Borgias Home | The Renaissance | Renaissance Italy
| ||RENAISSANCE INVENTIONS|
An important period from the point of social, political, cultural and scientific changes, Renaissance period marks the beginning of a revolution that changed the continent of Europe. The social and cultural influences also brought about changes in the field of science. It is was the transition phase between Medieval and Modern times. Inventions of this period proved to be the building blocks of scientific development in future. The information about renaissance inventions are given below, should help in understanding the changes which took place during the renaissance period.
| Mechanical Clock |
The mechanical clock was invented in the beginning of the 13th century. It would be appropriate to say that the development in technology of the mechanical clock took place gradually. The earliest form of mechanical clock had a drum containing mercury and which was driven by weights. Drums used in these mechanical clocks had compartments filled with mercury. Mercury passed through holes present in the compartments and thereby controlled the rate at which drum movement took place. Measurement of day time in a 24 hour cycle began after the invention of this clock.
| Spectacles |
An important advance in the science world came from the development of convex and concave lenses first used as vision correctors in about 1280, in Florence, Italy. These spectacles can be seen in paintings of Pope Leo X, who was often depicted wearing concave lenses to correct his vision problem of myopia, or near-sightedness
| Printing Press |
A big development in writing and literature was the invention of the printing press. Invented in 1436 by a 39 year old German man named Johann Gutenberg, the printing press was a great improvement over hand-copying. Before the development of this time-saving and economical machine, monks had to hand copy everything. This time-consuming and tedious process made books and scripts extremely hard to come by, and astronomically expensive. Gutenberg used his printing press to put ink on hundreds of individual letters that could be combined in numerous ways to create a entire page of text. After this stage was completed, as many copies as desired could be rendered. However, to print a different page, the individual letters had to be completely rearranged. This great invention helped Gutenberg reach his greatest achievement of the first mass-production of the Bible, which he published in 1456 in Mainz, Germany.
| Flushing Toilet |
An important invention used by all was the flush toilet invented c1596, not by Thomas Crapper as most people think, but by Sir John Harington. Harington, a British nobleman and godson of Queen Elizabeth I, invented a valve that when pulled would release water from a water closet. Sir John recommended flushing the toilet once or twice a day, although with our modern technology, we know that is probably not sufficient. (Rumour has it that, in Robin Hood's day, King Richard - angry with how his brother John ruled the country while the King was gone, named fair toilette, 'the john'.
| Telescope |
Using the idea of the microscope to guide him, Hans Lippershy of Middleberg decided to invent the telescope in 1608. Lippershy thought that if a microscope could enlarge images too small for the naked eye to see, there must be a way to enlarge objects too distant for which to get a good view. He accomplished this by combining two lenses and a tube in a different way than previously used in the microscope. By using convex and concave lenses he was able to magnify stars and planets. Like the microscope, the telescope was invented in Holland and bent light to view a desired image. Galileo Galilei used the telescope to develop his theories and ideas about Earth and its relation to the stars and the rest of the universe.