RULERS of 15th Century Italy

SEE ALSO Borgias Home I Italian City-States I Papal States I Powerful Families of Renaissance Italy

Page Symbol Rulers of 15th Century Italy
Characters - The   Borgias Fan Wiki




Page SymbolThe Republic of Venice
The Doge




  • Giovanni Mocenigo, doge from 1478 - 1485
  • Agostino Barbarigo, doge 1486 - 1501
  • Leonardo Loredan, doge 1501 - 1521


Portrait of Doge Agostino Barbarigo, Marco Basaiti., (c. 1501).


To the Venice page - Venezia
sasaiti agostino barbarigo




Page SymbolThe Republic of Florence
The Gonfaloniere
  • Cosimo de' Medici 'first citizen' from 1434-1464
  • Piero de' Medici (the Gouty) 'first citizen' 1464-1469
  • Lorenzo de Medici, (Il Magnifico) 'first citizen' 1469 - 1492
  • Piero the Unfortunate, 'first citizen' 1492-1494
  • Second Republic, ruled by signoria (council of nine) influenced by Girolamo Savonarola 1494-1498
  • Piero Soderini Gonfalonier/head of the republic 1498 - 1512
  • Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici, duke 1512-1516
  • Giulio de Medici, duke 1519 - 1523

Lorenzo de Medici (middle figure) pictured at right with members of the Signoria. Detail from Confirmation of the Rule by Domenico Ghirlandaio (1482-1485).
To the Florence page - Firenze
ghirlandaio confirmation rule detail





Page SymbolThe Duchy of Milan
The Duke
  • Galeazzo Maria Sforza, duke from 1466 - 1476
  • Gian Galeazzo Sforza, duke 1476 - 1494
  • Ludovico Maria (il Moro) Sforza, duke 1494 - 1499 (regent for duke Gian Galeazzo 1480 - 1494)
  • French rule (Louis XII) 1499 - 1512, briefly ousted by il Moro's son Francesco II.
  • French rule (Francis I) 1515 - 1521
  • Francesco II Sforza, duke 1521 - 1535
  • Milan became a Spanish possession under Emperor Charles V, who made his son Philip hereditary duke of Milan after the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrensis (1559): marking the end of the Italian Wars.

Ludovico "Il Moro" Sforza, by master of the Pala Sforzesca, detail from the Pala Sforzesca, Milan (1495).
To the Milan page - Milano
ludovico il moro




Page SymbolThe Duchy of Ferrara
The Duke
Portrait of Ercole I d'Este attributed to Dosso Dossi (c. 1505)

To the Ferrara page - Ferrara

ercole d'este dossi




Page SymbolThe Marquisate of Mantua
The Marquis

  • Ludovico II Gonzaga (1444 - 1478)
  • Gianfrancesco II Gonzaga, marquis 1484 - 1519(known as Francesco II Gonzaga, intimate of Lucrezia Borgia)
  • Federico II Gonzaga, marquis 1519 - 1540 (Mantua was raised to a duchy 1530 - 1540)

Portrait of Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence (c. 1490).

To the Mantua page - Mantova
francesco gonzaga




Page SymbolThe Duchy of Urbino
The Duke
  • Federico II da Montefeltro, duke 1474 - 1482
  • Guidobaldo I da Montefeltro, duke 1482 - 1508
  • (Cesare Borgia, was briefly Lord of Romagna, duke of Urbino 1502 - 1503.)
  • Francesco Maria I della Rovere 1508 - 1516
  • (Again duke after the Medici were ousted, from 1521 - 1538)
  • Lorenzo II de Medici, duke 1516 - 1519
This exquisite portrait is one of two of the duke and duchess of Urbino (the gentle Elizabetta Gonzaga) attributed to Raphael, painted c. 1506. See Elizabetta's portrait here
To the Urbino page - Urbino
Guidobaldo I da Montefeltro




Page SymbolThe Kingdom of Naples
The King




  • Alfonso I, King (House of Aragon) 1443 - 1458
  • Ferdinand/Ferrante I ("Don Ferrante"), King 1458 - 1494
  • Alfonso II, King 1494-1495 (father of Alfonso, duke of Bisceglie) - he abdicated in favour of his legitimate son, Ferrante II.
  • Ferdinand/Ferrante II, King 1495 - 1496 (died without issue, throne went to his uncle Frederick/Federigo).
  • Frederick/Federigo, King from 1495 until deposed by the combined forces of Spain and France in 1501 (died 1504)
  • Ferdinand of Aragon, King of Spain, Naples, and Sicily, 1504 - 1516.

French and Spanish claims to the throne of Naples fluctuated during the early Italian Wars (1494 - 1504).
The Kingdom of Naples was confirmed as a Spanish possession after the Treaty of Chateau-Cambresis (1559) but had effectively been in control of Spain since 1503.

To the Naples page - "il Regno" - Napoli


Don Ferrante (Ferdinand I) King of Naples

Don Ferrante (Ferdinand I), King of Naples

Alfonso II of Aragon, King of Naples

Alfonso II of Aragon, King of Naples (1494-5)


Page SymbolThe Republic of Genoa

Genoa was ruled by Dogi who were elected by representatives of the Republic's noble families. During Alexander VI's reign as pope, Genoa was a Milanese then French protectorate.



  • Giano I di Campofregoso (1447-1448)
  • Lodovico di Campofregoso (1448-1450)
  • Pietro di Campofregoso (1450-1458)
  • Charles VII of France (1458-1461)
  • The Eight "Capitani degli Artefici" (1461)
  • Prospero Adorno (1461)
  • Spinetta di Campofregoso (1461)
  • Lodovico di Campofregoso (1461-1462)
  • Paolo di Campofregoso (1462-1462)
  • The Eight "Capitani degli Artefici" (1462)
  • Lodovico di Campofregoso (1462-1462)
  • Paolo di Campofregoso (1463-1464)
  • First Sforza Rulership (1464-1477)
  • Captain Ibleto Fieschi (1477)
  • Second Sforza Rulership
  • Battista II di Campofregoso (1478-1483)
  • Third Sforza Rulership (1488)
  • Rulership of the Reformers of the Republic (1488)
  • Fourth Sforza Rulership (1488-1499)
  • Louis XII of France (1499-1507)
  • Paolo da Novi (1507)
  • Louis XII of France (1507-1512)


To the Genoa page - Genova

Louis XII entering Genoa in 1507 (miniature)
Miniature: Louis XII Entering Genoa in 1507

  • Giano II di Campofregoso (1512-1513)
  • Louis XII of France (1513)
  • Ottaviano di Campofregoso (1513-1515) Francis I of France (1515-1522)
  • Antoniotto II Adorno (1522-1527)
  • Francis I of France (1527-1528)
  • The Twelve Reformers of Freedom (1528)
  • Oberto Cattaneo Lazzari (1528-1531)
  • Battista Spinola (1531-1533)
  • Battista Lomellini (1533-1535)
  • Cristoforo Rosso Grimaldi (1535-1537)
  • Giovanni Battista Doria (1537-1539)
  • Gianandrea Lungo Giustiniani (1539-1541)


Page SymbolThe Kingdom of Sicily
The King
Following the revolt of the Sicilian Vespers in 1282, Sicily was detached from Naples and was ruled by the Kings of Aragon. The title of 'King of Sicily' was often given to the King's eldest son. Sicily was an important base for the Aragonese kings when fighting
for control of Naples.

  • Alfonso V of Aragon (1416 - 1458), also King of Naples from 1443 (Alfonso I of Naples)
  • John II of Aragon (1458-1468), received title from his brother Alfonso, then he passed the title to his son:
  • Ferdinand II of Aragon (1468-1516), also King of Naples from 1504

Pictured right - Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon


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