SEE ALSO: The Borgias Home I Timeline of Renaissance Italy I History of the Borgias I The Borgias Historical Profiles I The Borgias Cast I The Discussion Forum
Late Medieval, Renaissance, and Early Modern Europe
(1300 - 1599) gave was an amazingly rich epoch of revolutionary artists, humanism, secular movements, religious reformation, and scientific discovery. It was a time that gave rise to strong monarchs, flourishing trade, and witnessed the beginnings of the modern world.
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TIMELINE OF RENAISSANCE EUROPE
Late Medieval, Renaissance, and Early Modern Europe
(1300 - 1599) gave was an amazingly rich epoch of revolutionary artists, humanism, secular movements, religious reformation, and scientific discovery. It was a time that gave rise to strong monarchs, flourishing trade, and witnessed the beginnings of the modern world.
|1347||The The Plague ravages Europe for the first time, killing an estimated 30-60% of the population. In November Pope Clement VI (right) unites several of Rome's upper-class nobility, who drive Cola di Rienzo out of the city. 2 February – The Byzantine civil war between John VI Kantakouzenos and the regency for John V Palaiologos ends with Kantakouzenos entering Constantinople. May – The agreement reorganizing the Byzantine Empire's affairs is finalized as Anna of Savoy's son John V Palaiologos marries Kantakouzenos' 15-year-old daughter Helena. May – Genoese ships fleeing the Black Death plague in Kaffa stop in Constantinople, contaminating the city. 20 May – Cola di Rienzo, a Roman commoner, declares himself Emperor of Rome in response to years of baronic power-struggles.|
|1348|| Edward III (right) creates the first English order of chivalry, the Most Noble Order of the Garter. |
April 7 – Charles University is founded in Prague.
June – Two ships enter the Bristol Channel bringing the bubonic plague to England. June 24 – The Black Death outbreak goes into full swing in Melcombe Regis (modern-day Weymouth, Dorset in England).
July 6 – A Papal bull is issued by Pope Clement VI, protecting Jews against popular aggression during the Black Death epidemic. The Black Death epidemic spreads to central and western Europe.
|1349|| An earthquake in Rome causes extensive damage, including the collapse of the southern exterior facade of the Colosseum. |
January 9 – The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death.
February 14 – Roughly 2,000 Jews are burned to death in Strasbourg.
May – The Black Death ceases in Ireland.
August 24 – The Black Death breaks out in Elbing (Poland).
October 20 – Pope Clement VI publishes a papal bull that condemns the Flagellants. The Black Death spreads to Norway when an English ship with everyone dead on board floats to Bergen.
|1350|| Katherine Swynford, third wife of John of Gaunt (right) was born.|
The Plague reaches Scotland. England invades France.
May 23– a number of supporters of William V found the Cod league.
August 29 – Battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer: An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet.
September 5 – conservative noblemen in Holland found the Hook league.
Giovanni Boccaccio begins 'The Decameron'
|1351|| March 27 - Battle of the Thirty: English army defeated by the French under Guillame de Montauban.|
May 1 - Zurich joins Swiss Confederation.
The Ottman Turks cross the Dardenelels into Europe.
Duke Leopold III of Austria (right) born.
Gian Galeaxxo Sforza, first Duke of Milan, born.
|1352|| Pope Innocent VI (right) succeeds Pope Clement VI as the 199th pope. |
Lionel of Antwerp marries Elizabeth, daughter of William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster. William de Ashlee becomes Rector of Maids Moreton, England.
The town of Biel/Bienne, Switzerland finalizes its alliance with the city of Bern.
Reginald de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham becomes a Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter of England.
The Earldom of Kent becomes extinct.
January 6 - French king John II introduces Order of the Star.
|1353|| Margaret (right), future Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, born at Vordingborg|
Giovanni Boccacio 'The Decameron'. It consists of a hundred stories of love and romance told to each other by a group of men and women who have fled to a remote villa near Florence to escape the Black death. One of the most influential works of Renaissance literature, it remains in print to this day.
March 3 - Bern makes alliance with Swiss Confederation
|1354||Cola di Rienzo, self-proclaimed "tribune" of Rome (right) , is killed by an angry mob.The reign of John VI Cantacuzenus as Byzantine Emperor is ended, after he loses a battle to John V Palaiologos, who is restored as sole emperor. February 12 – The Treaty of Stralsund settles border disputes between the duchies of Mecklenburg and Pomerania. October 8 – Cola di Rienzo, self-proclaimed "tribune" of Rome, is killed by an angry mob.|
|1355|| Philip of Anjou marries Mary of Naples, daughter of Charles of Valois, duke of Calabria, and Mary of Valois.|
Charles IV (right) is crowned emperor in Rome.
February 10 - The St. Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead in two days.
May 7 - 1,200 Jews of Toledo Spain killed by Count Henry of Trastamara.
|1356|| January 10 - German emperor Charles I delegates Golden Degree.|
January 20 -Edward Balliol abdicates as King of Scotland.
September 19- English defeat French at Battle of Poitiers (right).
October 18 - Basel earthquake, the most significant historic seismological event north of the Alps, destroyed the town of Basel, Switzerland.
|1357|| January 4 - Flemish earl Louis & Luxembourg Duke Wenceslaus sign peace treaty|
May 28 -Alfonso IV of Portugal dies, his son Peter I becomes King.
June 3 - Peace of Aat.
July 9 -Charles IV (right), Holy Roman Emperor assists laying the foundation stone of Charles Bridge in Prague.
November 25 - Charles IV issues letter of protection to Jews of Strasbourg Alsace.
|1358|| February 25 - Dalmatie flees Venice.|
May 28 - Daint-Leu at Oise begins French boer uprising.
June 10 - French boer leader Guillaume Cale captured.
June 27 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded.
August 22 - Isabella (right), the 'She-Wolf of France' and widow of King Edward II, dies.
August 24 - John of Castile, the future King John I, born.
|1359|| Berlin joins the Hanseatic League.|
Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, and her husband, Louis of Bavaria, are absolved from excommunication.
The Second Treaty of London is signed between England and France.
Owain Glyndwr (right), rebel Welsh Prince, born
May 25 – The French States-General rejects the Second Treaty of London.
|1360|| March 4 - French invasion army lands on English south coast, conquers Winchel.|
May 8 - Treaty of Brétigny signed by English & French.
July 25 - Jews are expelled from Breslau Silesia.
July 27 - Danish King Waldemar IV (right) destroys Visby Gotland.
October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War.
December 5 - The French Franc is created.
|1361|| March 24 - Henry de Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster and adviser to Edward III of England, dies|
July 27 – Battle of Visby: Valdemar IV of Demark defeats a peasant uprising.
October 10 – Edward, the Black Prince, marries Joan, the 'Fair Maid of Kent' (right).
November 21 - Philip I, Duke of Burgundy, dies.
The University of Pavia is founded in Italy.
|1362|| January 16 - A great storm tide in the North Sea destroys the German island of Strand and the city of Rungholt.|
April 6 - Robber bastion Tard-Venus strikes at Brignais, France.
September 12 -Pope Innocent VI dies.
September 28 - Guillaum de Grimoard elected as Pope Urban V (right).
|1363|| April 9 – Haakon VI of Norway marries Margaret I of Denmark.|
September 11 - Christine de Pisan (right), feminist writer and poet, born at Venice.
Magnus IV, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg.
Philip the Bold becomes duke of Burgundy.
|1364|| February 15 - Albert of Mecklenberg becomes King of Sweden.|
April 8 - John II of France dies, his son Charles V (right), known as 'the Wise', becomes King.
May 12 - Jagiellon University, Krakow, founded.
September 29 - Battle of Auray: John of Montfort defeats Charles of Blois with English help to become Duke of Brittany.
|1365|| March 12 - University of Vienna (seal, right) founded by Duke Rudolph IV of Austria.|
October - King Peter I of Cyprus (Peter of Lusingan), Titular King of Jerusalem, leads a 'crusade' which sacks Alexandria before being forced to return home.
|1366||Henry of Trastamara deposes his half-brother Peter 'the Cruel' to become King of Castile|
March 22 - Thomas Mowbray, future Duke of Norfolk, born.
July 11 -Anne of Bohemia (right) , future wife of Richard II of England, born
Stella Artois brewery founded in Belgium.
|1367||January 6 - Richard, son of the Black Prince, the future King Richard II, born.|
January 18 - Ferdinand I succeeds his father Peter I as King of Portugal.
April 3 - Henry of Bolingbroke, the future Henry IV of England, born.
April 3 - Battle of Najera (right): Peter 'the Cruel', supported by English troops under the Black Prince and John of Gaunt, defeats Henry of Trastamara to be re-instated as King of Castile.
October 16 - Pope Urban V moves papacy back to Rome from Avignon, but the move only lasts three years.
Charles V builds first royal library in France.
|1368||Timur (Tamerlaine the Great) becomes King of Samarkand.|
Biblioteque Nationale established in France.
February 14 - Sigismund (right), future Holy Roman Emperor, born.
August 25 - Andrea Orcagna, Florentine sculptor, dies.
October 7 - Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, dies.
December 3 - Charles, Dauphin of France, the future Charles VI, born at Paris
Odo Colonna, the future Pope Martin V, born.
|1369||March 14 - Battle of Monteuil: Peter the Cruel is defeated by Henry of Trastamara.|
March 23 - Peter executed on Henry's orders (right).
May - King Charles V of France declares war on England and recaptures most of Acquitaine.
August 15 - Philippa of Hainault, Queen of England, dies.
September 12 - Blanche of Lancaster, first wife of John of Gaunt, dies.
Hungarians unsuccessfully attempt to invade Vanice
|1370||May 24 - Treaty of Stralsund ends war between Denmark and the Hanseatic League.|
December 19 - Pope Urban V dies.
December 30 - Gregory XI (right) elected Pope.
Joanna of Navarre, future wife of Henry IV of England, born
Olav, future King of Norway, born.
|1371||February 22 - David II of Scotland (right) dies and is succeeded by his nephew Robert II, first of the Stewart Kings of Scotland and England.|
March 4 - Jeanne d'Evreaux, widow of Charles IV of France, dies
May 28 - John 'the Fearless', future Duke of Burgundy, born
September 21 - John of Gaunt marries Constance of Castile, daughter of Peter the Cruel.
Isabelle (Isabeau) of Bavaria, future wife of Charles VI of France, born.
|1372||March 13 - Louis of Valois, the future Duke of Orleans, born.|
June 22 - Battle of La Rochelle: French forces besieging the English at La Rochelle commanded by John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, were aided by a Castilian fleet commanded by the Genoese admiral Ambroio Boccanegra. Pembroke was captured and the French/Castilian victory gave them control of the Channel.
December 9 -Beatrice of Portugal future claimant to the throne and wife of John I of Castile, born.
|1373||March 24 - Treaty of Santarem signed by Ferdinand I of Portugal and Henry II of Castile, ending the war between the two countries.|
May 13 - Julian of Norwich (right) writes 'The Revelations of Divine Love', one of the most important works of Renaissance mysticism.
June 23 - Joanna of Naples, the future Queen Joanna II, born
July 23 - Birgitta (Bridget) Birgersdottir, future Patron Saint of Sweden, dies
November 3 - Jeanne de Valois, Queen-Consort of Navarre, dies
|1374|| July 19 - Death of Petrarch (right).|
Jun 24th - A sudden outbreak of St. John's Dance causes people in the streets of Aachen, Germany, to experience hallucinations and begin to jump and twitch uncontrollably until they collapse from exhaustion.
April 23 – In recognition of his services, Edward III of England grants the English writer Geoffrey Chaucer a gallon of wine a day for the rest of his life.
|1375|| Treaty of Bruges between England and France halts the Hundred Years War and leaves England in possession of Calais, Bordeaux and Bayonne.|
October 24 - King Valdemar IV of Denmark dies, his daughter Margaret becomes de fato Queen.
December 21 - Giovanni Boccaccio (right), writer, poet and humanist, dies.
|1376|| March 31 - Government of Florence excommunicated by Pope Gregory XI and the city placed under an interdict.|
June 8 - The Black Prince, eldest son of Edward III of England dies.
September 1 - Philip Duke of Orleans dies.
November 20 - Richard of Bordeaux, the future Richard II, made Prince of Wales in place of his late father.
St Catherine of Siena(right) visits the Pope at Avignon to attempt to persuade him to lift the Interdict on Florence and return the seat of the Papacy to Rome.
|1377|| January 17 - Pope Gregory XI returns the Papacy to Rome.|
January 27 - Frederick III, 'the Simple', King of Sicily, dies.
February 11 - Ladislaus (right), future King of Naples, born.
June 21 - Edward III, King of England, dies.
Filippo Brunelleschi, architect, born.
|1378|| The Western Schism, a split within the Roman Catholic Church divided it from 1378 to 1417.|
January 31 - Alfonso de Borja (right) uncle of Rodrigo Borgia and future
Pope Callistus III, was born.
February 6 - Queen of Charles V of France, Jeanne de Bourbon, died.
April 9 - Riots inRome calling for a Roman Pope, the cardinals who are mostly French, elect Pope Urban VI, following the death of Pope Gregory XI. His name was ( Bartolomeo Prignano) Archbishop of Bari, as the 202nd Pope.
July - A European government represents all social classes for the first rime.
The government of Florence was briefly take, because of the discontent wool carders in the Revolt of the Ciompi.
August 4 - Galeazzo II Visconti dies and is succeeded by his son Gian Galeazzo Visconti, as a ruler of Milan.
August 16 - Patron Saint of pestilence, San Rocco di Venezia, dies
November 29 - Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV, dies
|1379|| May 29 – John I succeeds his father, Henry II, as King of Castile and King of León. September 9 – Treaty of Neuberg signed, splitting the Austrian Habsburg lands between brothers Albert III (right) and Leopold III. Albert III retains the title of Duke of Austria. |
The Venetians and Ottomans invade Constantinople and restore John V Palaiologos as Byzantine co-emperor. Andronikos IV Palaiologos is allowed to remain as Byzantine co-emperor but is confined to the city of Silivri for the remainder of his life.
|1380|| April 29 - Catherine of Siena, future Saint, dies.|
April - Pope Urban VI declares Queen Joanna of Naples a heretic for her support of the Antiipope Clement VII and pronounces her Kingdom forfeit.
June 21 - Battle of Chioggia: Venetian fleet beats the Genoese.
July 13 - Bertrand de Guesclin, Constable of France and leading fourteenth century general, dies.
July 27 - Henry of Bolinbroke, the future King Henry IV of England, marries Mary de Bohun (right) at Arundel.
September 11 - King Haakon VI of Norway dies.
September 16 - King Charles V of France dies and is succeeded by his son Charles VI.
November 27 - Ferdinand of Trastamara, the future King Ferdinand I of Aragon, born.
|1381||June - The Peasants Revolt, one of the most famous insurrections in Renaissance history, begins when rebels objecting to the Poll Tax from Essex and Kent, led by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw, meet at Blackheath, where they are encouraged by a sermon from dissident priest John Ball. The rebels march on London on 14th June, destroy John of Gaunt's palace of the Savoy and storm the Tower of London, killing the Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon Sudbury. The young King, Richard II, meets the rebels (right) and agrees to abolish serfdom. On 15th June, Wat Tyler is murdered by the King's attendants. The nobles suppress the revolt, execute the rebel leaders and the King withdraws his concessions.|
|1382|| May 12 - Joanna I, Queen of Naples (right), who had been captured by Charles of Durazzo, claimant to the throne, murdered on his orders.|
August 13 - Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Castile, dies.
September 10 - Louis I of Hungary and Hungary dies; his elder daughter Mary becomes Queen of Hungary and his younger daughter Jadwiga 'King' of Poland.
|1383|| January 22 - Richard II of England and Anne of Bohemia (right) marry.|
May 17 - King John I of Castile marries his second wife Beatrice of Portugal.
October 22 - Ferdinand I of Portugal dies. The Portuguese resist the succession of his daughter Beatrice because she is married to the King of Castile and they fear being subjugated; interregnum and period of civil war follows.
November 9 - Niccolo III d'Este, future Duke of Ferrara, born.
Gabriele Condulmer, the future Pope Pope Eugenius IV, born .
|1384|| Castilian army besieges Lisbon in support of the claims of John I and his wife Beatrice to the throne.|
August 11 -Yolande of Aragon (right), claimant to the thrones of Aragon
and Naples and mother of Louis and Rene of Anjou born.
November 16 - Princess Jadwiga crowned 'King' of Poland.
December 31 - John Wycliffe, English theologian and reformer, dies
John of Fordoun, Scottish writer and author of the 'Scotichronicon', a history of Scotland, dies..
|1385|| March - Jadwiga of Poland marries Grand-Duke Jagiello of Lithuania, establishing the Jagiellonian dynasty as rulers of both countries.|
July 17 -Charles VI of France marries Isabelle (Isabeau) of Bavaria.
August 7 - Joan of Kent, widow of the Black Prince and mother of Richard II, dies.
August 14 - Battle of Aljubarrota (right): John of Aviz, claimant to the throne of Portugal, defeats John I of Castile and becomes King of Portugal.
Jan van Eyck, Flemish artist, born.
|1386|| February 24 - Charles of Durazzo, King of Naples, assassinated.|
May 9 - Treaty of Windsor signed betweenRichard II of England and Charles VI of France.
July 9 - Battle of Sempach - Duke Leopold III of Austria defeated and killed by the Swiss.
September 16 - Henry, son of Henry of Bolinbroke and Mary de Bohun, the future King Henry V, born at Monmouth, Wales
Venice takes control of the island of Corfu.
Donatello, Florentine sculptor and artist, born.
University of Heidelberg founded.
William Langland, English poet, author of 'Piers Plowman' (illustrated right), dies.
|1387|| January I - Charles II of Navarre dies, his son Charles III (right) becomes King.|
January 5 - Peter IV, 'the Ceremonious', King of Aragon dies and is succeeded by his son John I.
July 6 - Blanche, future Queen of Navarre, born.
December 19 - Battle of Radcot Bridge: Richard II of England defeated by rebellious nobles and held prisoner until he sacks his councillors.
|1388|| August 5 - Battle of Otterburn (or Chevy Chase) (right): James, Earl of Douglas, defeats the English army led by the Percy family, but is killed in the battle.|
John of Gauntgives up his claim to the throne of Castile through his wife Constance and arranges the marriage of his daughter Catherine to Henry, son of Henry II, the incumbant King of Castile.
Charles VI of France comes of age, regency of his unclePhilip the Bold of Burgundy ends.
University of Cologne founded.
Juliana Berners, English nun and author of books on hunting and fishing, born.
|1389|| February 24 - Queen Margaret of Denmark (right) defeats Albert of Mecklenburg to become ruler of Sweden as well as Denmark and Norway (known as the League of Kalmar).|
September 27 - Cosimo de Medici born.
October 15 - Pope Urban VI dies.
November 2 - Boniface IX becomes Pope.
|1390|| April 19 - Robert II, King of Scotland, dies and is succeeded by his son Robert III.|
October 9 - John I (right), King of Castile, dies after a fall from his horse at Alcala de Henares and is succeeded by his son Henry III.
John Dunstable, English composer, born.
Altichiero da Verona, artist famous for his church frescos, dies.
|1391|| June 6 - Anti-Jewish riots in Seville cause many deaths.|
August 5 - Further anti-semitic riots and massacres in Toledo and Barcelona.
October 31 - Edward of Portugal, future King and son of King John I and his wife Philippa of Lancaster (right) born.
University of Ferrara founded.
|1392|| February 3 - Henry Percy, second Earl of Northumberland, born.|
Charles VI of France begins to experience episodes of schizophrenia.
Charles's brother, Louis, created Duke of Orleans.
Erfurt University founded.
Filippo Maria Visconti (right), future Duke of Milan, born.
|1393|| Margaret of Burgundy (right), later Dauphine of France and Duchess of Brittany, born.|
Ottoman Empire conquers the Byzantine province of Thessaly.
Bosnia successfully resists Ottoman invasion.
August 24 -Arthur de Richemont, future Duke of Brittany, born.
|1394|| March 4 - Henry 'the Navigator', Prince of Portugal, born.|
June 4 - Mary de Bohun, wife of Henry of Bolingbroke, dies.
June 7 - Anne of Bohemia, Queen of England, dies.
September 16 - Pope Clement VII dies.
September 28 - Benedict XII elected Pope.
November 24 - Charles Duke of Orleans, poet, born.
December 10 - Prince James of Scotland, poet and the future James I, born.
Constance of Castile, wife of John of Gaunt, dies.
John Hawkwood (right), leader of the 'White Company', English mercenary captain active in Italy, dies.
|1395|| March 13 - John Barbour, Scottish poet and author of 'The Bruce', dies.|
May 17 - Mary, Queen and co-ruler of Hungary (right) dies.
August 29 - Albert III, Duke of Austria, dies and is succeeded by his son Albert IV
Fra Angelico, early Renaissance artist, born.
Gian Galezzo Visconti buys the title of Duke of Milan from the Holy Roman Emperor Wensceslas.
|1396|| Creation of Chair of Greek in Florence; teacher Manuel Chrysoloras (right) brings a copy of Ptolemy's "Geography" to Italy. |
May 19 – Martin I succeeds his brother, John I, as King of Aragon (now north-east Spain). July 23 – Queen Margaret of Norway, Denmark and Sweden makes her adopted son Eric of Pomerania joint ruler of Sweden. Eric had already been made joint ruler of Norway. September – The Battle of the North Inch takes place in Perth, Scotland.
October 31 - Richard II of England marries the six-year old Isabella of Valois.
December 18 - Prince Alfonso, the future Alfonso V of Aragon and Naples, born.
|1397|| Giovanni di Bicci de Medici moves to Florence, Italy.|
Pope Nicholas V (right) 1st Renaissance pope born.
February 10 – John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset.
July 20 – Queen Margaret forms the Kalmar Union, uniting the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway (with Iceland and Greenland) and Sweden (including Finland). September 29 – John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon is created Duke of Exeter by his half-brother Richard II of England.
|1398|| Richard II of England (right) exiles his cousin Henry Bolinbroke and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk.|
France withdraws support for the Antipope Benedict XIII and French forces under Geoffrey Boucicaut besiege the Pope's residence at Avignon.
Johannes Guttenberg, inventor of the printing press with moveable type, born at Mainz.
June 29 - Prince John, the future John II of Aragon, born.
July 20 - Roger Mortimer, heir of Richard II of England, dies.
|1399|| Richard II deposed and Henry IV, the former Henry Bolinbroke, (right) becomes King of England. |
February 3 – John of Gaunt, uncle of King Richard II of England and father of Henry Bolingbroke, dies. Richard II cancels the legal documents allowing the exiled Henry Bolingbroke to inherit his father's land. While Richard II is away on a military campaign in Ireland, Henry Bolingbroke, with exiled former Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Arundel as an advisor, returns to England and begins a military campaign to reclaim his confiscated land.
|1400|| February 14 - Richard II, deposed King of England, dies of starvation in Pontefract Castle.|
October 25 - Death of Geoffrey Chaucer author of "Canterbury Tales".
Bruni, early Italian historian writes Panegyric to the City of Florence.
Johannes Gutenberg was born.
The Plague broke out again in Europe.
This period from 1400-1850 became known as the Little Ice Age.
|1401|| Lorenzo Ghiberti awarded commission to create the doors for the Baptistry of San Giovanni in Florence.|
Brunelleschi and Donatello (right) travel to Rome.
Birth of painter Masaccio.The De heretico comburendo Act is passed in England, as the Archbishop of Canterbury pressures King Henry IV of England into outlawing as heretics anyone owning an English translation of the Bible.
|1402|| June 22 – Battle of Bryn Glas: The Welsh rebels defeat the English on the England/Wales border. |
June 26 – Battle of Casalecchio: Gian Galeazzo Visconti (right), the Duke of Milan, crushes the forces of Bologna and Florence, but he dies from a fever later this year and is succeeded by his son Gian Maria Visconti.
|1403|| Charles VII (right) "the Victorious" future King of France is born.|
The Ottoman Empire fell into 11 years of civil war.
February 7 – King Henry IV of England marries Joanna of Navarre, the daughter of Charles d'Évreux, King of Navarre.
March 12 – As King Martin I of Aragon helps to end the siege by the French of the papal palace in Avignon, Antipope Benedict XIII flees to Aragon.
|1404|| John the Fearless (right) succeeds his father, Philip the Bold as Duke of Burgundy. |
August 1 - Earl Engelbert I of Nassau marries Johanna of Poland.
September 26 - Brussels Brabants/Limburgse audit-office established.
October 17 - Cosma de' Migliorati elected Pope Innocentius VII.
|1405|| March 6 - John, son of Henry III of Castile and future King John II, born.|
June 8 - Archibishop Richard Scrope and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed for treason by Henry IV of England.
June 20 - Alexander Stewart, son of Robert II of Scotland, known as 'the Wolf of Badenoch' and infamous for burning down Elgin Cathedral, dies.
October 18 - Aeneas Silvio Piccolomini the future Pope Pius II (right) is born.
Jean Froissart, French chronicler, dies.
Christine de Pisan writes 'The Book of the City of Ladies'.
|1406|| April 4 - Robert III King of Scotland (right) dies after learning of the capture of his eldest son by English pirates.|
November 6 - Pope Innocent VII dies.
30 November - Grefory XII elected Pope.
25 December - John II (aged I) becomes King of Castile.
Richard (Dick) Whittington becomes Lord Mayor of London.
|1407|| March 7 - Francesco Gonzaga Ruler of Mantua, dies.|
April 23 - Olivier de Clisson, known as 'the Butcher', Breton general and Constable of France, dies.
November 23 - Louis Duke of Orleans, brother of King Charles VI of France, murdered by servants of John the Fearless (right), Duke of Burgundy, sparking a feud between France and Burgundy that lasts for seventy years.
|1408|| Henry, Prince of Wales, retakes Aberyswth from Owain Glyndwr.|
February 20 - Battle of Braham Moor: the rebel Earl of Northumberland, Henry Percy, is defeated and killed by royalist forces; his head is later placed ona spike on London Bridge.
December 4 - Valentina Visconti (right), wife of the Duke of Orleans and source of the later claims of Louis XII of France to the Duchy of Milan, dies.
|1409|| January I - Welsh rebels surrender Harlech Castle to English forces.|
February 28 - Elizabeth of Luxemburg (right), Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, born
March 25 - Council of Pisa opens with the aim of ending the Great Schism, but ends by electing a third Pope, Alexander V.
July 25 - Martin 'the Younger' of Aragon, King of Sicily, dies without legitimate heirs.
December 2 - University of Leipzig founded.
|1410|| Antipope John XXIII elected.|
May 3 - Pope Alexander V dies.
May 31 - Martin I of Aragon ('the Humane' or 'Humanist') dies without legitimate sons, sparking a succession crisis.
October - John Gower, English poet, dies.
November 13 - Isabella de Valois (right), widow of Richard II of England and Louis, Duke of Orleans, dies.
|1411|| JJne 3 - Duke Leopold IV of Austria dies|
July 24 - Battle of Harlaw: Donald, Lord of the Isles, attempts to capture Aberdeen but is defeated by the Earl of Mar near Inverurie.
September - Countess of Cambridge Anne de Mortimer dies.
September 3 - Richard Plantagenent, Duke of York (right) , born.
September 21- Henry IV of England calls his ninth Parliament
November 30 - Prince Henry and his supporters are dismisses from the government by
Date Unknown- Spanish poet: Juan de Mena born.
|1412|| January 6 - Traditional birthdate of Joan of Arc.|
January 16 - Medici family made official bankers to the Papacy.
May 16 - Gian Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, dies.
June 5 - Francesco Gonzaga I, Lord of Mantua, born.
28 June - Compromise of Caspe: Ferdinand I (right, with his wife Eleanor of Alberqerue), chosen King of Aragon.
October 28 - Margaret, Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, dies.
|1413|| University of St. Andrews (right) founded.|
February 21-The Duke of Savoy, Louis is born.
March 20 - Death of Henry IV of England, Henry V becomes King.
September 26- Duke of Bavaria, Stephen III died.
November 19- Elector of Bradenburg: Frederick II is born.
|1414|| May 14 - Francis I, Duke of Brittany, born.|
July 21 - Francesco della Rovere (right), the future Pope Sixtus IV born.
August 6 - Ladislaus, King of Naples, dies and is succeeded by his sister Joanna II.
November 16 - Council of Constance, aimed at ending the Great Schism, begins under the presidency of the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund.
|1415|| April 15 - Manuel Chrysolaris, Professor of Greek in Florence, dies.|
May 3 - Cecily Neville (right), 'The Rose of Raby', Duchess of York and mother of English Kings Edward IV and Richard III, born.
July 6 - Jan (John) Huss, Czech priest and leader of the pre-Protestant Hussite movement, burned at the stake for heresy.
August 14 - Portuguese forces capture the city of Ceuta in North Africa: Ceuta later becomes part of Spain, which it remains to the present.
September 21 - Frederick of Habsburg, the future Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III, born.
October 25 - Battle of Agincourt: won by Henry V defeats French forces,
Charles, Duke of Orleans, father of future King of France Louis XII, taken prisoner and held in England until 1440.
|1416|| January 27 - Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) becomes first European state to outlaw slavery|
April 2 - Ferdinand I, King of Aragon, dies and is succeeded by his eldest son Alfonso 'the Magnanimous'.
Piero Cosimo de Medici born.
Jacquetta of Luxembourg, mother of future Queen of England Elizabeth Woodville (right) , born.
Owain Glyndwr, Welsh rebel leader, dies.
|1417|| Brunellschi (right) works on dome of Florence Cathedral.|
February 23 - Pietro Barbo, the future Pope Paul II, born.
June 24 - First meeting of the Tynwald, Parliament of the Isle of Man.
July 27 - Antipope Bendict XIII, residing at Avignon, deposed, End of the Western Schism.
November 11 - Martin V elected Pope.
December 14 - John Oldcastle, English Lollard leader and basis of Shakespeare's character Sir John Falstaff, executed for heresy.
|1418|| May 19 - John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, captures the city of Paris.|
June 2 - Catherine of Lancaster (right), Dowager Queen and Regent of Castile, dies.
June 12 - Bernard of Armagnac, Constable of France, dies.
Council of Constance ends, having deposed the Antipopes.
Portugal sends settlers to Madeira.
|1419|| January 19 - French city of Rouen surrenders to Henry V in Hundred Years War.|
July 30 - Anti-Catholic Hussites, followers of executed reformer Jan Hus, stormtown hall in Prague & throw Catholic councillors out the windows
July 30 - First Defenestration of Prague.
September 10 - John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy is assassinated by adherents of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII of Franceand is succeeded by his son Philip 'the Good' (right).
December 11 - Heretic Nicolaas Serrurier exiled from Florence
|1420|| May 21 - Treaty of Troyes - Charles VI of France (right) acknowledges Henry V of England as his heir and de facto King of France.|
The newly united papacy moves back to Rome.
March 1 - Pope Martinus I calls for crusade against the hussieten.
April 21 - Treaty of Saint Maartens Dike.
May 21 - Treaty of Troyes-French King Charles VI gives France to English.
May 23 - Jews of Syria & Austria expelled.
May 25 - Henry the Navigator is appointed governor of the Order of Christ.
June 7 - Troops of the Republic of Venice capture Udine, ending the independence of the Patriarchate of Aquileia.
|1421||January 21 - Lord Foligno, Noccolo I Trinci dies.|
February 10 - Gabriel Schlesinger, Irish writer and poet, born.
March 21 - Battle of Bauge (right) : a small French force, consisting mainly of Scottish troops, surprises and defeats a smaller English force, resulting in the death of the English commander Thomas of Lancaster, brother of King Henry V
July 25 - Henry Percy 3th Earl of Northumberland,born.
December 6 - Prince Henry, future King Henry VI of England, born
John III of Dampierre, Marquis of Namur.sells his States to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy
First patent is issued by the Republic of Florence
Agnes Sorel, future mistress of Charles VII of France, born
|1422||July 8 - Daughter of Charles VI of France, Michele of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France, dies|
August 31 - Henry V of England (right) dies and is suceeded by his baby son.
November 27 - Gaston IV of Foix, French nobleman and future husband of Queen Eleanor of Navarre, born.
William Caxton, English printer, born.
Thomas Walsingham, English chronicler, dies.
|1423|| May 23 - Antipope Benedict XIII dies|
July 3 - The Dauphin Louis, the future King Louis XI of France, born
July 31 - Battle of Cravant (right): French army defeated by English forces led by the Earl of Salisbury
Francesco Foscari becomes Doge in Venice.
Treaty of London provided for the release of James 1 from English captivity, for ransom of £40,000 paid in 6 annual instalments, and for the sessation of reinforcements to Scottish troops in France
Richard (Dick) Whittington, Lord Mayor of London, dies
|1424|| June 2 – Battle of L'Aquila: Jacopo Caldora and Micheletto Attendolo for the Kingdom of Naples defeat Braccio da Montone for Alfonso V of Aragon. |
August 17 – Battle of Verneuil (right) : An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stewart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. Alençon is captured and Douglas killed.
|1425||July 19 - Duke John VI of Brabant pledges Holland/Zealand to Philip the Good.|
August 25 - Countess Jacoba of Bavaria escapes from jail.
September 8 - Charles III (right), King of Navarre, dies and is succeeded by his daughter Blanche.
October 14 - Alesso Baldovinetti, Florentine painter, born.
December 9 - Pope Martin V founds University of Leuven.
|1426|| February 2 - Eleanor of Aragon (right), daughter of John of Aragon and Blanche of Navarre, future Queen of Navarre, born|
February - Christian of Oldenbourg, later King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, born
March 6 – Battle of St. James (near Avranches): An English army under John, Du ke of Bedford defeats the French under Arthur de Richemont, forcing the Duke of Brittany to recognize English suzerainty.
Anne Neville, wife of Warwick 'the Kingmaker' and mother of Queen Anne Neville, wife of Richard III, born
|1427||August 17– The first band of Gypsies visits Paris, according to an account of the citizen of Paris. |
November 30 - Casimir Jagiellon(right), future King of Poland, born
Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded.
The House of Balsic's rule of Montenegro comes to an end.
Frist witch hunt held in Switzerland.
|1428||January 9 - Pope Martin V declares Jacoba van Beierens marriage invalid.|
February 5 - King Alfonso V, orders Sicily's Jews to attend conversion sermons
May 3 - Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza, future Cardinal, born.
June 29 - Jacoba of Bavaria signs cease fire with Philip the Good.
July 23 -Treaty of Delft-between Jacoba of Bayern & Philip the Good.
November 22 - Richard Neville (right), future Earl of Warwick, known as 'the Kingmaker', born.
|1429|| February 20 - Cosimo de Medici (right) inherits the family bank and rises to great power in Florence.|
March 23 - Margaret of Anjou, future wife of Henry VI of England, born
May 7 - French forces, led by Joan of Arc, capture Orleans
July 17 - The Dauphin Charles is crowned King of France at Rheims as Charles VII.
The industry of Coal Mining begins in Germany
|1430|| January 7 - Institution by Phillip the Good, Duke of Burgundy of the Order of the Golden Fleece in order to celebrate his marriage to Isabella of Portugal. The collar of the Order, complete with pendant sheep, is shown right. |
May 14 - First attempt to relieve the Siege of Compiegne, by the French.
May 23 - While leading and army to relive Compiegne, Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians.
August 14 - Duke of Brabant, Philip I, dies
August 18 - Thomas de Ros 9th Baron de Ros, dies.
October 16 - The future James II of Scotland born at Edinburgh.
October 28 - English politician, Richard West, 7th Baron De la Warr, born.
|1431|| January I - Rodrigo Borgia is born at Jativa, near Valencia.|
The interrogation of Joan of Arc began.
May 30 - Joan of Arc (right) burned at the stake
December 16 – Henry VI of England crowned King of France
Francois Villon, French poet, born.
William Elphinstone, future Bishop of Aberdeen and founder of Aberdeen University, born
Vlad the Impaler, 'Dracula', Prince of Wallachia, born.
|1432|| January 15 - Alfonso, future King Alfonso V of Portugal, born|
January 22 - John of Schoonhoven, theologian, dies
March 30 - Mehmet II, future Ottoman sultan, born
May 5 - Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola, Italian adventurer,dies
June 1 - Florence defeat Siena in the Battle of San Romano.
June 29 - Janus of Cyprus dies.
August 15 - Italian poet Luigi Pulci, Italian poet, born.
October 19 - John de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, dies
Van Eycks: The Adoration of the Lamb..
Giovanni Cibo, the future Pope Innocent VIII (right) is born.
Isabella of Coimbra, future Queen of Portugal, born.
Alvise Cadamosto, Italian explorer, born.
|1433|| June 23 - Francis (right), future Duke Francis II of Brittany, born|
August 14 - John I of Portugal dies and is succeeded by his son Edward
September – Cosimo de' Medici, later the de facto ruler of Florence and patron of Marsilio Ficino, is exiled by the Albizzi/Strozzi faction. (Cosimo returns a year later, to the day, in 1434).
November 10 - Charles, son of Philip Duke of Burgundy, the future Duke Charles the Bold, born
| 1434 || Cosimo de Medici (right) becomes ruler of Florence.|
April 14 - Foundation stone of Cathedral of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Nantes, France, laid
June 1 - King Wladislaus of Poland dies
September 18 - Eleanor of Portugal, future HolyRoman Empress, born
September 23 - Duchess of Savoy, Yolande of Valois, was born.
October 19 - University of Catania founded
November 12 - King Louis III of Naples dies.
Jan van Eyck paints 'The Arnolfini Wedding' (right)
John I Duke of Bourbon dies
Mateo Maria Boiardo, Italian poet, born.
|1435|| Leon Battista Alberti completes his On Painting.|
February 2 - Joanna II of Naples (right) dies childless, leading to a disputed succession and war between Alfonso of Aragon and Rene of Anjou.
June 12 - John FitzAlan, 14th Earl of Arundel dies
September 14 - John of Lancaster, Regent of England and1st Duke of Bedford, dies.
September 21 - Treaty of Arras between Charles VII of France and Philip III of Burgundy.
September 24 - Isabeau of Bavaria, Dowager Queen of France, dies.
Francis of Paola founds the Order of the Minims in Italy
Amadeus IX, future Duke of Savoy, born.
Jean Molinet, French poet and chronicler,born.
Thomas Stanley, later Earl of Derby and husband of Lady Margaret Beaufort, born.
|1436|| Charles VII recovers France.|
Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral, Florence, is consecrated
Isabella of Bourbon (right), future wife of Charles Duke of Burgundy and mother of Mary, Duchess of Burgundy, born
Franciso Ximenes de Cisneros, future Cardinal, Grand Inquisitor and Regent of Castile, born
|1437|| January 3 - Catherine de Valois, widow of Henry V and wife of Owen Tudor, dies|
February 21 - James I of Scotland (right) murdered at Blackfriars Monastery, Perth, by rebellious nobles
December 9 - Sigismund I, Holy Roman Emperor, dies
Elizabeth Woodville, future wife of Edward IV, born
|1438|| January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary|
March 18 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes ruler of Germany
July 7 - Charles VII of France issues Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, depriving the Pope of French ecclesiastical revenues
September 9 - Edward (Duarte) King of Portugal (right) dies and is succeeded by his six year old son Alfonso V, with his widow Eleanor of Aragon as Regent
|1439|| Bull of Union between the Greek and Latin Churches.|
Kissing was banned in England in order to stop germs from spreading.
Francesco Piccolomini, future Pope Pius III (right) is born.
April 30 - Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, dies.
June 24 - Duke Frederick IV of Austria dies.
July 26 - Sigismund of Bavaria born.
September 8 - Ending Trinci's signoria, Cardinal Giovanni Villeschi, captures Foligno.
October 12 - Plymouth becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament
October 20 - Ambrose the Camaldulian, theologian, dies.
October 27 - Albert II, Holy Roman Emperor, dies.
| 1440 || October 26 - Gilles de Rais, companion of Joan of Arc, executed for withcraft, child abuse, abduction and murder|
Eton College founded by Henry VI
Valla uses humanist skills to expose Donation of Constantine as a forgery.
Lucrezia Landriani (right), mistress of Duke Galeazzo Sforza of Milan and mother of Caterina Sforza, born.
|1441|| July 9 - Death of the painter Jan van Eyck (self-portrait, right)|
Alfonso of Aragon captures city of Naples after a five month siege
Henry VI of England founds Kings College, Cambridge
|1442|| April 28 - Edward of York, the future King Edward IV, born at Rouen|
June 12 - Alfonso of Aragon crowned King of Naples
December 26 - Niccolo d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara, dies
Vannozzo dei Cattanei (right) future mistress of Rodrigo Borgia born.
|1443|| January 27 - Albert, future Duke of Saxony, born.|
January 28 - Robert le Macon,.Chancellor of France, dies.
February 23 - Matthew Corvinus, future King of Hungary, born.
February - Guidantonio da MontefeltroGuidantonio da Montefeltro, Count of Urbino,dies.
April 12 - Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury, dies.
May 9 - Niccolo Albergati, Italian Cardinal and diplomat, dies.
May 17 - Edmund, Earl of Rutland, second son of Richard Duke of York, born.
June 5 - Ferdinand the Saint, Prince of Portugal, dies.
May 31 - Lady Margaret Beaufort, (above right) mother of Henry VII, born.
Rodolphus Agricola, Dutch humanist, born.
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford and Lancastrian miliatry leader, born.
Philip II, Duke of Savoy, born.
|1444|| Death of painter Robert Campin.|
Leon Battista Alberti "On the Family".
The Iguvine Tables are discovered at Gubbio, Italy. Portuguese explorers reach the mouth of the rivers Senegal and Gambia.
The first European slave market for the sale of African slaves, the Mercado de Escravos, opens in Lagos, Portugal. Portuguese caravel lands 235 slaves at Algarve, Portugal.
A serious fire occurs at St Paul's Cathedral in London. Constantine XI, as despotate of the Morea, invades the Latin Duchy of Athens and forces them to pay tribute, and return Thebes to Byzantium.
|1445|| February 19 - Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of Portugal, dies.|
February 23 - Maria of Aragon, Queen of Castile, dies.
March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Florentine artist, born.
May 19 - Battle of Olmedo: Castilian forces under the Constable, Alvaro de Luna, defeat the army of the Infantes of Aragon, John and Henry, Prince Henry dies of his wounds a few weeks later.
July 15 - Joan Beaufort (right), Dowager Queen of Scorland, dies.
October 10 - Battle of Mokra: Albanian army under George Skanderbeg defeats Ottoman invaders.
December 15 - Giuilana della Rovere, the future Pope Julius II, born near Savona.
|1446|| April 15 - Death of Filippo Brunelleschi, leading Renaissance architect.|
May 3 -Margaret of York (right), future wife of Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy and sister of Edward IV and Richard III of England, born.
May 9 - Mary of Enghien, Queen of Naples, dies.
December 28 - Former Antipope Clement VIII dies
Pietro Perugino, Italian painter, born.
|1447|| February 23 - Pope Eugenius IV dies; Hunphrey Duke of Gloucester dies|
March 8 - Pope Nicholas V (right) elected and he begins a major rebuilding program. Also founds the Vatican Library.
August 13 - Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, dies.
December - Vlad 'Dracula', Prince of Wallachia, assassinated.
Philippe de Commynes, politican and historian, born.
Bayezid, the future Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II, born.
|1448|| January 5/6 – Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir, leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. Brothers Bengt JönssonOxenstierna and Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna are selected to serve as co-regents of Sweden. |
June 20 – The Regency period of Sweden ends with the election of Karl Knutsson Bonde as King Charles VIII of Sweden (right).
June 28 – Charles VIII of Sweden is publicly hailed as king at Mora Stones.
September 28 – Christian of Oldenburg, betrothed to Queen Dowager Dorothea of Brandenburg, becomes King Christian I of Denmark.
|1449|| January 1 -Lorenzo 'il Magnifico' (right) born.|
April 7 - The Last Antipope, Felix V, abdicates, official ending of the Great Schism
October 8 - Bona of Savoy, future Duchess of Milan, born
October 21 - George of Clarence, brother of the future Kings Edward IV and Richard III of England, born
October 29 - French forces recapture Rouen from England
|1450|| February 9 - Agnes Sorel mistress of Charles VII of France, dies of mercury poisoning, possibly killed by her cosmetics.|
May 8 - Kentish rebellion of Jack Cade: men of Kent march on London
May 18 - Peitro Soderini, future Gonfalier of Florence, born.
June 18 - Battle of Seven Oaks: Kentish army defeated and expelled from London.
November 3 - University of Barcelona founded.
Francesco Sforza takes power in Milan.
Johannes Gutenberg invents the Printing Press with moveable type.
Hieronymus Bosch, Dutch artist, born.
|1451|| February 3 -Mehmet II 'The Conqueror' becomes Ottoman sultan.|
April 22 - Isabella I of Castile (right) is born at Madrigal de Altas Torres.
August 20 - French troops capture Bayonne, last English territory in Guienne
University of Glasgow founded by James II
Christopher Columbus born.
|1452|| February 22 - James II of Scotland murders the Earl of Douglas during a banquet at Stirling Castle; his nobles join in and and throw the body from a window.|
March 10 - Ferdinand, future King of Aragon and Castile, (right) born at Sos, Aragon.
April 15 - Leonardo da Vinci born at Vinci, near Florence.
September 21 - Girolamo Savonarola born at Ferrara.
October 2 - Richard of York, the future Richard III born at at Fotheringay.
|1453|| Giuliano de' Medici, father of Giulio (Pope Clement VII) born.|
May 29 - Constantinople falls to Ottoman forces under Mehmet II (right), end of the Eastern Empire.
July 3 - John II of Castile executes his chief minister, Alvaro de Luna.
September 1 - Gonsalvo Fernandez de Cordoba, Spanish general and future conqueror of Naples, born.
October 19 - Bordeaux falls to French troops: end of the 'Hundred Years' War
December 24 - John Dunstable, English composer, dies.
|1454|| Start of the Wars of the Roses.|
The Gutenberg Bible published revolutionizes European literacy.
March 9 - Amerigo Vespucci, explorer and cartographer for whom America is named, born at Florence
March 27 - Richard of York becomes Protector of England due to the insanity of King Henry VI
April 9 - Treaty of Lodi between Milan, Florence and Naples effectively guarantees peace in Italy for forty years
July 20 - John II of Castile dies and is succeeded by his son Henry IV (right)
|1455|| Gutenberg Bible is printed at Mainz.|
Pope Nicholas V dies.
Pope Callistus III (right) becomes the first Spanish Pope. *When Callixtus becomes Pope, Young, 24 year old Rodrigo Borgia who was the new pope's nephew decides that the Church would be a great place for him to realize his ambitions.
May 22 - First Battle of St. Albans: Richard Duke of York and Warwick 'the Kingmaker' defeat Lancastrian forces and capture King Henry VI.
|1456|| Rodrigo Borgia at the age of 25 becomes Cardinal Deacon of St Niccolo in Carcere.|
May 18 - Battle of Oronochia: Ottoman forces defeated by George Skanderbeg, occupation of Albania prevented.
June 11 - Anne Neville, future Queen of Richard III of England, born.
June 23 - Margaret of Denmark (right), future Queen of James III of Scotland, born.
July 7 - Retrial ordered by Pope Callixtus III finds Joan of Arc not guilty of heresy
August 20 - Vlad Dracula becomes Prince of Wallachia
|1457|| Rodrigo Borgia is made vice-chancellor of the Holy See.|
January 28 - Henry Tudor(right) the future King Henry VII is born at Pembroke Castle, Wales.
February 13 - Mary of Burgundy born.
|1458|| June 27 - Alfonso the Magnanimous (right) , King of Aragon and Naples, dies. His brother John succeeds him in Aragon and Sicily; his conquered kingdom of Naples passes to his illegitimate son Ferrante.|
August 6 - Pope Callistus III (Alfonso Borgia) dies.
|1459||Adoration of the Magi by Benozzo Gozzol.|
March 2 - The future Pope Adrian VI is born at Utrecht.
March 22 - Maximilian, future Holy Roman Emperor, botn at Weiner Neustadt
October 12 - Duke of York flees to Ireland.
December 22 - Prince Cem (Djem) (right), Ottoman prince and future hostage of Pope Alexander VI, born.
|1460|| May 4 - Portuguese explorers discover the Cape Verde Islands.|
August 3 - James II of Scotland (right) killed by the bursting of a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle.
September 29 - Louis de la Tremoille, French general and future husband of Louise Borgia, born.
November 13 - Prince Henry the Navigator, promoter of Portuguese exploration, dies.
December 30 - Battle of Wakefield. Richard Duke of York and his son Edmund killed, Lancastrians victorious.
|1461|| February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross: Yorkist forces defeat the Lancastrians, Owen Tudor, grandfather of Henry VII, executed.|
March 29 - Battle of Towton. In one of the bloodiest battles fought on English soil,
Edward IV (right) is victorious and becomes King of England.
Louis XI becomes King of France.
|1462|| February 28 - Joanna 'la Beltraneja' (right), daughter of Joanna of Portugal and (perhaps) of Henry IV of Castile, future unsuccessful claimant to the Castilian throne, born.|
March 27 - Vassili II of Russia dies and is succeeded by his son Ivan III.
June 27 - Louis of Orleans, the future Louis XII, born at Blois,
|1463|| February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Miradola, scholar, philosopher and friend of Savonarola, born.|
December 1 - Mary of Guelders (right), Queen Mother and Regent of Scotland, dies.
August 4- Italian patron of the arts Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, born.
Marie of Anjou, dowager Queen of France, dies.
|1464|| May 1 - Edward IV of England secretly marries Elizabeth Woodville.|
June 18 - Flemish artist Rogier van de Weyden dies.
August I - Cosimo de Medici, effective ruler of Florence, dies.
August 18 -Pope Pius II dies.
August 30 -Pope Paul II (right) becomes Pope.
December 4 - Blanche of Aragon, Queen of Navarre, dies imprisoned in the Castle of San Juan, poisoned by her younger sister Eleanor.
|1465|| Bellini and Mantegna;The Agony in the Garden.|
Johann Tetzel (right) , Dominican preacher whose sale of indulgences was decried by Martin Luther and influenced the Reformation, born
January 5 - Charles Duke of Orleans, French nobleman and poet, dies
March 30 - Isabella of Taranto, wife of King Ferrante I of Naples, dies
June 5 - Henry IV of Castile deposed in effigy at Avila by rebellious nobles
June 10 - Mercurino Gattinare, future Chief Minister of the Emperor Chalres V, born at Savoy
July 13 - Battle of Monthlery: inconclusive engagement between troops of Louis XI of France and the nobles of 'the League of the Public Weal'
|1466|| February 11 - Elizabeth of York, future wife of Henry VII born.|
March 8 - Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, dies.
August 10 - Francesco II Gonzaga, future Marquis ofMantua and admirer of Lucrezia Borgia born.
August 26 - Leonardo Bruni's conspiracy against Piero de Medici fails.
October 26 - Desiderus Erasmus (right) born at Rotterdam
November 30 - Andrea Doria, Genoese Admiral and naval commander to Charles V, born
December 13 - Donatello,Florence artist and sculptor, dies.
|1467|| Charles the Bold succeeds as Duke of Burgundy.|
Ramon de Cardona, General of the Holy League and Viceroy of Naples, born.
September 3 - Eleanor of Portugal (right) , Holy Roman Empress, dies.
June 15 - Duke of Burgandy, Philip III died.
August 11 - Daughter of King Edward IV of England, Mary of York, born.
|1468|| January 3 - George Skanderbeg, Albanian general and saviour of his country from the Turks, dies.|
February 3 - Johannes Guttenberg, inventor of the moveable type printing press, dies.
February 13 - Joanna Enriquez (right), Queen of Aragon dies at Tarragona.
February 29 - Alessandro Farnese, the future Pope Paul III, born.
October 14 - Treaty of Peronne signed between Louis XI of France and Charles Duke of Burgundy.
November 24 - Jean Dunois, French general known as the 'Bastard of Orleans and companion of Joan of Arc, dies.
|1469|| Leonardo da Vinci (right) moves to Florence, Italy where Lrenzo di Medici takes power|
May 3 - Niccolo Machiavelli born at Florence
October 19 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon marries Princess Isabella of Castile, leading to the unification of Spain.
|1470|| It is around this time that it is believed Rodrigo Borgia took up with Vannozzo dei Cattanei.|
Sir Thomas Malory completes his Morte de Arthur.
Exile of Edward IV in the Low Countries.
June 30 - Charles VIII of France (right), whose invasion of Italy in 1494 started the italian Wars, born.
November 2 - Edward V, son of Edward IV and eldest of the Princes in the Tower, born
|1471|| Pope Paul II dies and Pope Sixtus IV (right) becomes Pope|
April 14 - Battle of Barnet: Edward IV defeats the Lancastrians, Warwick 'the Kingmaker' killed in the battle
May 4 - Battle of Tewkesbury. Lancastrian forces again defeated by King Edward, Edward of Wales, only son of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, killed in the battle. Lancastrian soldiers seeking santuary in Tewkesbury Abbey dragged out and executed by the victorious Yorkists.
|1472||February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are granted by Norway to Scotland, in lieu of the dowry payment for Margaret of Denmark.|
March 28 - Fra Bartolommeo, Tuscan artist, born.
April 9 - Bianca Sforza, future wife of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, born
June 24 - Zoe Paleologa departs Rome for Moscow
July 12 - Richard Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester and later King of England, marries Anne Neville (right), daughter of the Earl of Warwick, in Westminister Abbey
Lucas Cranach the Elder, German artist, born
|1473||February 19 - Nicolaus Copernicus (right), founder of modern astronomy, born at Torun, Poland|
March 17 - James of Scotland, the future King James IV, born at Stirling
August 14 - Margaret Plantagenet, future Countess of Salisbury executed by King Henry VIII, born in Somerset.
August 17 -Richard Duke of York, younger of 'The Princes in the Tower, born at Shrewsbury
September 24 - George von Frundsberg, German general and leader of the Imperial army that was victorious at the Battle of Pavia in 1525, born at Mindelheim.
Thomas Howard, future Duke of Norfolk who narrowly escaped execution by Henry VIII, born.
|1474|| Death of composer Guillaume Dufa|
Giulia Farnese (right) is born.
First book printed in English.
December 11 - Henry IV of Castile, known as 'the Impotent' dies. The throne is claimed both by his alleged daughter Joanna 'la Beltraneja' and his sister Isabella, leading to civil war.
|1475|| Birth of artist Michelangelo Buonarroti.|
William Caxton produces the first book printed in English
The future Pope Leo X born.
Cesare Borgia(right) born.
|1476|| Rodrigo Borgia becomes Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Dean of the Sacred College|
March 1 - Battle of Toro: Ferdinand of Aragon defeats Alfonso of Portugal to confirm he and his wife Isabella as rulers of Castile.
Juan Borgia (right) born.
|1477|| January 5 - Death of the last Valois Duke, Charles the Bold (right), killed by the Swiss at the Battle of Nancy.|
January 25 - Birth of Anne, future Duchess of Brittany and Queen of France, at Nantes.
August 18 - The Archduke Maximilian of Austria marries Mary of Burgundy.
|1478|| February 7 - Thomas More (right) is born|
April 26 - Guiliano de' Medici assassinated in the Pazzi Conspiracy; his brother Lorenzo is wounded
May 26 - Giulio de' Medici, son of Guiliano, the future Pope Clement VII is born postumously.
|1479|| January 20 - John II of Aragon (right) dies, his son Ferdinand succeeds to the throne.|
June 15 - Lisa del Giaconda, the 'Mona Lisa', born
August 7 - Battle of Guinegate: French forces attempting to take over the Netherlands defeated by the forces of Maximilian of Austria, husband of Duchess Mary.
September 4 - Treaty of Alcocovas officially ends war between the Spanish kingdoms and Portugal.
November 6 - Joanna, second daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella and future Duchess of Burgundy and titular Queen of Spain, born.
|1480|| Leonardo da Vinci Paints St. Jerome in the Wilderness |
It depicts Saint Jerome (right) during his retreat to the Syrian desert, where he lived the life of a hermit. St Jerome kneels in a rocky landscape, gazing toward a crucifix which can be discerned faintly sketched in at the extreme right of the painting. In Jerome's right hand he holds a rock with which he is traditionally shown beating his chest in penance. At his feet is the lion which became a loyal companion after he extracted a thorn from its paw...
|1481|| The Spanish Inquisition begins. It will continue to operate until 1820.|
May 3 -Sultan Mehmet II dies and is succceeded by his son Bayazid II
May 21 - Christian I King of Norway and Sweden dies and is succeeded by his son John.
August 28 - Alfonso V of Portugal dies, his son John II (right) becomes King.
September 10 - City of Otranto in Naples recaptured from the Turks by Alfonso, Duke of Calabria.
|1482|| March 27 - Mary, Duchess of Burgundy (right) and wife of the Archduke Maximilian, killed in a riding accident.|
June 29 - Maria of Aragon, third daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, and later Queen of Portugal, born.
|The Kingdom of England captures Berwick from the Kingdom of Scotland, resulting in the only permanent change to the Anglo-Scottish border from the signing of the Treaty of York in 1237 to the present day.|
|1483|| April – King Edward V of England (right) and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York reside in the Tower of London. Later this year rumors of their murders start circulating. By December the rumors have reached France. This is the beginning of the mystery concerning the fates of the two Princes in the Tower.|
April 6- Italian painter and architect, Raphael, born.
April 9- Edward IV King of England, died.
June 13- In the first recorded execution at the Tower of London, William Hastings, 1rst Baron Hastings is executed.
June 13- Half brother of Edward V of England, Richard Grey is executed.
June 20- In Portugal, the powerful Fernando II, Duke of Braganza is executed followed by more than 80 other noblemen, for his plot against the Royal crown.
June 25- King Edward V of England, is deposed by his uncle, Richard Duke of Gloucester before his coronation, who become King as Richard III crowned.
|1484|| April 9 - Edward of Middleham, also known as Edward Plantagenet the only son of King Richard III of England dies, probably of tuberculosis.|
Anne de Foix-Candale (right) , future Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, born
March 26- The first printer of books in English by Caxton prints his translations of Aesop's fables.
August 24- Bartolome de las Casas, Spanish writer, bishop and champion of the natives of the Americas, born.
August 29- As 213th pope, Pope Innocent VIII succeeds Pope Sixtus IV.
December 5- In Germany, led by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Springer, Pope Innocent VIII give the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and witches.
|1485|| August 22 - Battle of Bosworth Field. Richard III (right) was the last king of the Plantagenet family, who had ruled over England for more than three hundred years. Richard's defeat at Bosworth Field by Henry Tudor ended the Plantagenet dynasty and the Wars of the Roses and heralded the Tudor dynasty.|
December 16 - Katherine of Aragon born.
|1486|| January 18 – King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York (right) are married, uniting the House of Lancaster and the House of York after the Wars of the Roses.|
July 14 - Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland, dies at Stirling.
|1487||Battle of Stoke: Many historians consider Stoke the final conflict in the Wars of the Roses, even though the 1485 Battle of Bosworth Field is the crushing blow against the Yorkists. A group of Yorkist loyalists concoct a scheme in a last-gasp attempt to regain the crown. Richard Simons, a priest, and others instruct a commoner by the name of Lambert Simnel to impersonate the earl of Warwick, grandson of the late Warwick the Kingmaker. Lambert claims he escaped from the Tower of London where the real Warwick is imprisoned. Upon his "escape," he is crowned king in Dublin, Ireland, on May 24, 1487. The new Yorkist group lands in England in June 4 and begins to collect an army of English soldiers and German and Irish mercenaries. Henry VII (right) moves to intercept the force at East Stoke on June 16. He crushes the rebel army. King Henry's forces capture Simon, imprison him, and make him a servant of the king. King Henry's army ruthlessly kills all soldiers who fought for the Yorkist faction.|
|1489|| March 14- Catherine Cornaro, the Queen of Cyprus, sells her kingdom of Venice.|
April 28- 4th Earl of Northumberland, Henry Percy, dies.
June 4- Duke of Lorraine, Antoine, born.
July 2- Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, born.
November 28 - Margaret Tudor (right) born, the eldest daughter and second child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, and future Queen of Scotland. Margaret was most likely named in honour of Henry VII's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort
|1490|| Tirant lo Blanch is a romance written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, supposedly finished by Martí Joan de Galba and published in Valencia in 1490. It is one of the best known medieval works of literature in Catalan, and played an important role in the evolution of the Western novel because of its influence on the author Miguel de Cervantes.|
February 17 - Charles III, Duke of Bourbon (right), leader of the imperial army that besieged Rome in 1527 and sacked it, born
|1491|| Bookkeeping is said to have been first regularly practised at Venice in the fifteenth century. A treatise on the subject was published in 1491.|
June 28 - Henry VIII (right) born
December 31- French Explorer- Jacques Cartier born.
December 24- Spanish founder of the Society of Jesus, Ignatius of Loyola born.
2nd Duke of Suffolk died.
July 13- Crown Prince of Portugal Alfonso died.
|1492|| January 2 – Boabdil (right), the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege, ending the 10-year Granada War and the Reconquista which lasted almost 800 years. Christopher Columbus is in Alhambra, and sees the Moorish king come out of the city gates and kiss the hands of the Spanish king, queen and prince. January 6 – Ferdinand and Isabella enter into Granada.|
April 9 - Lorenzo de Medici, 'the Magificent', dies at Florence.
October 12 - Christopher Columbus lands at Watling Island in Central America.
|1493|| March 15 - After his first voyage of discovery, Christopher Columbus return to Spain; Anne de Montmorency, future Constable of France, born|
May 4 – In the papal bull Inter caetera, Pope Alexander VI decrees that all lands discovered west of the Azores are Spanish.
June 12 - Lucrezia Borgia marries Giovannia Sforza.
June 14 - Ermolao Barbaro, Italian scholar, dies
August 19 - Maximlian I succeeds his father Frederick III as Holy Roman Emperor.
September 29 - On his second voyage of exploration Christopher Columbus leaves Cadiz.
September -Juan Borgia marries Maria Enriquez.
November - Martin Alonso Pinzon, explorer and fellow captain of Columbus, dies of syphilis
December 31 -Eleanora Gonzaga (right) , Duchess of Urbino, born
|1494|| January 25 - Ferrant I dies, Alfonso II (right) replaces his father as king of Naples.|
May 11 -Joffre Borgia marries Sancia of Aragon.
May 31- Natives, know as Guanches fron the Island of Tenerife, defeat the invading Spanish forces.
June 7- Spain and Portugal divided the new world between themselves with the
Treaty of Tordesillas.
October 22 - Starts a chain of events that leads to the first Italian war when Ludovico Sforza, become Duke of Milan.
King Charles VIII of France invaded Italy.
|1495|| February 22 – King Charles VIII of France (right) enters Naples to claim the city's throne. A few months later, he decides to return to France, and leaves Naples with most of his army, leaving a force under his cousin Gilbert, Count of Montpensier as viceroy.|
October 25 - John II of Portugal dies and is succeeded by his cousin Manuel 'the Fortunate'
University of Aberdeen founded by Bishop Elphinstone
|1496|| Henry VII of England signs the commercial treaty Magnus Intercursus with Venice, Florence, and the villes of the Hanse and Pays-Bas.|
Joanna of Castile marries Philip, Duke of Burgundy.
September 7 - Ferrante II, King of Naples (right), dies and is succeeded by his uncle Frederick.
|1497|| January 2 - Beatrice d'Este, Duchess of Milan, dies in childbirth |
February 7 – Followers of Girolamo Savonarola burn thousands of "immoral" objects at the Bonfire of the Vanities in Florence on Shrove Tuesday.
June 14 - Juan Borgia, Duke of Gandia, murdered.
|1498|| May 23– Girolamo Savonarola, ruler of Florence, is executed for heresy.|
June - Niccolo Machiavelli is elected by the Great Council as the second chancellor of the Republic of Florence.
July 21 - Lucrezia Borgia marries Alfonso of Aragon.
September 16 – Tomás de Torquemada, (right) first Grand Inquisitor dies.
|1499|| January 8 - Anne of Brittany (right) marries Louis XII of France|
May 12 - Cesare Borgia marries Charlotte d'Albret
October 25 – The Pont Notre-Dame in Paris collapses onto the Seine.
The French under Louis XII seize Milan, driving out Duke Ludovico Sforza.
|1500|| February 24 - Charles V, future King of Spain (right), was born in Ghent, Belgium. He was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope. |
April 8 - Battle of Novara: King Louis XII beat duke Ludovico Sforza (Il Sforza del Destino).
April 10 - France captured duke Ludovico Sforza ("Il Sforza del Destino") of Milan.
May 17 - Louise Borgia, daughter of Cesare and Charlotte, born
|1501|| Amerigo Vespucci, Florentine navigator (right) , explored the coast of Brazil on his second voyage to the New World.|
Niccolo Machiavellimarries Marietta Corsini.
January 16 - Confidant of King Henry VIII of England, Anthony Denny, born.
January 17 - Triumphantly Cesare Borgia returns to Rome from Romagna.
January 17 - German physician and botanist Leonhart Fuchs, born.
May 7 - Cardinal Giovanni Batista died.
July 18 - Isabella of Burgundy, future wife of Christian II of Denmark, born.
September 24 - Astrologer and gambler, physician and Italian mathematician, Girolamo Cardano, born.
October 13 - Recognizing all French conquest in the northern territories, Maximilian of Austria and Louis XII signed the Treaty of Trente.
October 30 - The infamous "Ballet of the Chestnuts" held in the Vatican,
November 4 - Juana "la Loca" and Philip of Burgundy leave for Spain.
November 14 - The Spanish princess, Katherine of Aragon, marries Arthur prince of Wales.
|1502|| Treaty of Perpetual Peace signed beteen Henry VII of England and James IV of Scotland (right)|
February 2 - Lucrezia Borgia marries Alfonso d'Este
December 26 – Cesare Borgia kills Ramiro de Lorca; this incident is referenced in Machiavelli's The Prince.
|December 31 – Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) occupies Urbino, where he imprisons two potentially treacherous allies, Vitellozzo and Oliveretto; he executes them the next morning.|
|1503|| February 23 – Italian Wars – Battle of Ruvo: The Spanish defeat the French.|
March 10 - Ferdinand I, future Holy Roman Emperor, born at Alcala de Henares
April 21 – Battle of Cerignola: Spanish forces under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (right) defeat the French under the Duc de Nemours, who is killed (considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms).
August 8 - James IV of Scotland marries Margaret Tudor
August 18 - Pope Alexander VI dies
October 31 - Guilana della Rovere is elected Pope and takes the title Julius II.
November 23 - Margaret of York, Dowager Duchess of Burgundy, dies
December 28 - Spanish forces defeat the French at the Battle of Garigliano, the exiled Piero de Medici drowns trying to escape
|1504|| September 8 – Michelangelo's sculpture of David is erected in Florence.|
November 26 – Isabella I of Castile (right) Catholic Queen of Castile and Aragon, dies. Her Will names her daughter Joanna Duchess of Burgundy as Queen of Castile, but with the proviso that her father Ferdinand is to serve as Regent if she is 'unwilling or unable to govern'. The resulting power struggle between Ferdinand and Joanna's husband Philip is the main influence on European politics for the next two years.
|1505|| June 15 - Ercole d'Este (right), Duke of Ferrara, dies, his son Alfonso (husband of Lucrezia Borgia) becomes Duke|
June 27 – Henry VIII of England repudiates his engagement to Catherine of Aragon, at his father's command.
July 2 - Martin Luther (right), then 22, vows to become a monk in a moment of terror, due to a near lightening strike during a thunderstorm near the village of Stotternheim. On July 17 he enters the monastic life at an Augustinian cloister in Erfurt.
September 15 - Mary of Habsburg, future Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and Regent of the Netherlands, born
|1506|| March 22 - Ferdinand of Aragon marries Germaine de Foix.|
April 18 - Pope Julius III (right) lays the foundation stone of the new (current) St Peter's Basilica, replacing the old St Peter's Basilica.
May 20 - At about age 55, Columbus died in Valladolid, fairly wealthy from the gold his men had accumulated in Hispaniola.
September 25 - Philip 'the Handsome' Duke of Burgundy and titular King of Castile dies at Burgos.
| 1507 |
| March 12 – At the siege of a castle in Viana, Spain, Cesare Borgia is killed in battle against the forces of the Constable of Navarre, Luis de Beaumont. |
April 25 – Martin Waldseemüller publishes his world map, naming the new continent America in honour of Amerigo Vespucci. The accuracy of this detail is till debated.
October 29 - Ferdinand Alvarez de Toledo, future Duke of Alba and Governor of the Netherlands, born
Leonardo da Vincicompletes the Mona Lisa (right).
February 15 - Giovanni Bentivoglio, tyrant of Bologna, dies
April 10 - Guidobaldo da Montefeltro (right), Duke of Urbino, dies
May 27 - Ludovico Sforza, 'Il Moro', deposed Duke of Milan, dies in a French prison
June 12 - Bernard Stewart, Sieur d'Albany, Scottish general in the service of France, dies in Edinburgh
July 28 - Robert Blackadder, Bishop of Glasgow, dies
November 30 - Andrea Palladio, Reniassance architect, born at Padua
December - Michaelangelo begins work on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
December 10 - League of Cambrai formed against Venice between the Pope, France, Spain and the Empire
|1509|| April 21 – Henry VIII becomes King of England (for 38 years) on the death of his father, Henry VII. |
April 27 – Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict and excommunication for refusing to cede part of Romagna to papal control.
May 28 - Caterina Sforza (right) dies. In April 1509 Caterina was stricken by a severe case of pneumonia. She appeared to have recovered, but had a relapse of the disease, after which she made her will and arranged her burial. At the age of forty-six years, "The Tiger of Forlì", who had "frightened all of Romagna" died on 28 May.
|1510|| January – Katherine of Aragon (right) gives birth to her first child, a stillborn daughter. January 23 – Henry VIII of England, then 18 years old, appears incognito in the lists at |
Richmond, and is applauded for his jousting before he reveals himself.
January 1 – Henry, Duke of Cornwall, eldest son of Henry VIII of England born died on February 22.
April 9 – St John's College, Cambridge, England, founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort, receives its charter.
October 28 - St. Francis Borgia, grandson of Juan Borgia, born
|1511|| July 30 - Giorgio Vasari (right), artist and author of 'Lives of the Painters', born at Arezzo|
September 1 - Council to Pisa opens.
October 5 - Eedgenootschap signs anti-French Saint League
November 13 - England signs on to the Saint League.
November 17 - England & Spain sign anti-French covenant.
November 17 - Spain and England ally against France.
|1512|| April 11 - Battle of Ravenna fought between forces of France and those of the Holy League. French victory negated by the death of their general, Gaston de Foix, in the battle.|
Navarre conquered by Ferdinand II of Aragon
Niccolo Machiavelli (right) writes 'The Prince'
November 1 – The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti, is exhibited to the public for the first time.
|1513|| March 9 – Pope Leo X (right) succeeds Pope Julius II as the 217th pope. |
September 13 - Battle of Flodden: James IV of Scotland defeated and killed by English forces under the Earl of Surrey.
October 7 – Battle of La Motta: Spanish troops under Ramon de Cardona defeat the Venetians. December – Louis XII makes peace with the Pope and Spain.
|1514|| January 9 - Anne of Brittany dies at Blois.|
March 12 – A huge exotic embassy sent by King Manuel I of Portugal to Pope Leo X defiles in Rome.
October 9 – Louis XII of France and Mary Tudor (right) are married.
|1515|| January I - Louis XII, King of France (right), dies at Paris..|
September 13 – September 14 – Battle of Marignano: The army of Francis I of France defeats the Swiss, thanks to the timely arrival of a Venetian army. Francis restores French control of Milan.
December 2 - Gonsalvo de Cordoba, 'the Great Captain', Spanish general and conqueror of Naples, dies at Granada
|1516|| January 23 -Ferdinand II of Aragon (right) dies at Madrigalejo, near Trujillo.|
March – His grandson Charles of Ghent is formally proclaimed King of Spain as Carlos I.
King Francis I of France and Pope Leo X sign the Concordat of Bologna.
|1517|| January - Jofre Borgia dies|
August 15 – Portuguese merchant Fernao Pires de Andrade meets Ming Dynasty Chinese officials through an interpreter at the Pearl River estuary and lands at what is now in the jurisdiction of Hong Kong. Although the first European trade expeditions to China took place in 1513 and 1516 by Jorge Álvares and Rafael Perestrello, respectively, Andrade's mission is the first official diplomatic mission of a European power to China commissioned by a ruler of Europe - Manuel I of Portugal (right).
|1518|| April 18 – Bona Sforza (right) is crowned as Queen of Poland.|
August 27- Dowager Queen Consort of Naples, Joanna of Aragon- dies.
November 24 - Mistress of Pope Alexander VI,Vanozza dei Catanei dies.
| July – Dancing Plague of 1518, a case of dancing mania in Strasbourg in which many people died from constant dancing. |
October 3 – The Treaty of London, formulated by Cardinal Wolsey, temporarily ensures peace in Western Europe.
November 26 - Vannozza de Catenei dies
|1519|| January 12 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (right), dies |
April 13 - Catherine de Medici was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romula di Lorenzo de' Medici.
June 24 - Lucrezia Borgia dies
|June 28 – Charles I of Spain becomes Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (rules until 1556).|
|1520||December 10 – Martin Luther (right) burns a copy of The Book of Canon Law (see Canon Law) and his copy of the Papal bull Exsurge Domine.|
|1521|| January 3 – Pope Leo X (right) excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. |
January 22 – Emperor Charles V opens the Diet of Worms.
|1522|| January 9 – Pope Adrian VI (right) born Adrian Dedens and sometimes referred to as Hadrian) succeeds Pope Leo X as the 218th pope. |
April 27 – Battle of Bicocca: French and Swiss forces under Odet de Lautrec are defeated by the Spanish in their attempt to retake Milan, and are forced to withdraw into Venetian territory.
|1523|| November 19 – Pope Clement VII (right) succeeds Pope Adrian VI as the 219th pope.|
February 4 - Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, Thomas Ruthall, dies.
April 5 - French diplomat and cryptographer, Blaise de Vigenere, was born.
May 24 - English politician, Henry Marney, 1st Baron Marney, dies.
June 5 - Duchess of Berry, Margaret of France was born.
September 14 - Pope Adrian VI died.
September 22 - French church leader and pretender to the throne, Charles Cardinal de Bourbon was born.
October 18 - Daughter of Sigismund I of Poland, Anna Jagiellon, was born.
The New Testament is translates into German by Martin Luther.
Spanish military leader, Sancho d' Avila, was born.
Nephew of King Henry VIII, Henry Brandon, Earl of Lincoln, son of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, was born.
Italian jurist, Alessandro Alessandrini, dies.
Italian painter, Bartolomeo Montagna,dies.
Spanish navigator, Vicente Yanez Pinzon, dies.
|1524||August – September – Marseille is besieged by Imperial forces under the Duke of Bourbon. October 28 – A French army invading Italy under King Francis I (right) besieges Pavia.|
|1525|| June 16 – Henry VIII of England creates his illegitimate son Henry Fitzroy (right) Duke of Richmond and Somerset.|
March 20 - Begins the pursuit of Protestants in Paris parliament.
June 13 - Against the celibacy rule decreed by Roman Catholic Church for priests and nuns, Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora.
|The Bubonic Plague spreads in southern France.|
|1526|| January 14 – Treaty of Madrid: Peace is declared between Francis I of France and Charles V (right). Francis agrees to cede Burgundy to Charles, and abandons all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan. |
May 22 – Francis repudiates the Treaty of Madrid and forms the League of Cognac against Charles, including the Pope, Milan Venice, and Florence.
|1527|| May 6 – Spanish and German troops led by the Duke of Bourbon Sack Rome (the infamous Sacco di Roma), forcing Pope Clement VII (right) to make peace with Charles V. |
May 16 – In Florence, the Piagnon, a group devoted to the memory of Girolamo Savonarola, drive out the Medici for a second time, and Florence re-establishes a republic that lasts until 1530.
May 21 - Philip, only son of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal and future King Philip II of Spain, born at Valladolid
June 21 - Niccolo Machiavelli dies
|1528|| April 6 - Albrecht Durer (self-portrait right), renowned German artist, dies|
November 6 – Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his companions become the first known Europeans to set foot on the shores of what is present-day Texas.
|October 13 – Cardinal Wolsey founds a college at Ipswich, which later becomes Ipswich School.|
|1529|| April 22 – The Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297.5 leagues or 17° east of the Moluccas.|
February 2 - Italian writer and diplomat Baldassare Castiglione, died.
April 3 - German mathematician and historian Michael Neander, was born.
April 20 - Cardinal and lord of Florence Silvio Passerini, died.
April 25 - Italian philosopher and scientist Francesco Patrizi, was born.
June 14 - Regent of Tyrol and Further Austria,Archduke Ferdinad II of Austria, was born.
July 30 - Reaches Lubeck, spreading from there into Schleswig - Holstein in next few month, was the only Continental outbreak sweating sickness.
|August 5 – Emperor Charles V and Francis I of France sign the Treaty of Cambrai, or the "Ladies' Peace"., brokered by Charles' aunt Margaret of Austria and Francis' mother Louise of Savoy (right) Francis abandons his claims in Italy, but is allowed to retain Burgundy.|
|1530||August 3 – Battle of Gavinana: Florence is captured by Spanish troops under Prince Philibert. The Piagnon (followers of the memory of Girolamo Savonarola) are overthrown and the Medici are restored, in the person of the Pope's nephew Alessandro de Medici.|
| The Knights of Malta are formed when the Knights Hospitaller are given Malta by Pope Clement VIII.|
November 30 - Cardinal Wolsey (right) dies.
December I - Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands, dies
|1531|| February 11 – Henry VIII of England is recognised as supreme head of the Church of England. February 27 – Lutheran princes in the Holy Roman Empire form a defensive alliance known as the Schmalkaldic League.|
November 16 - Anna d'Este (right), granddaughter ofL:ucrezia Borgia and future Duchess of Guise, born at Ferrara
|1532|| May 16 – Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England.|
June 23 - A secret treaty against emperor Karel V was signed by King Henry VIII & Francis I.
November 15 -King Henry VIII was told to end his relationship with Anne Boleyn, by Pope Clement VII.
|September 1 – Lady Anne Boleyn (right) is created Marquess of Pembroke by her fiancé, King Henry VIII of England.|
|1533||January 25 – King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, who becomes his second queen consort.|
| June 1 –Thomas Cranmer (right) crowns Anne Boleyn, wife of Henry VIII of England, in Westminster Abbey as queen. Pope Clement VII responds to the marriage by excommunicating both Henry and Cranmer from the Roman Catholic Church .|
June 25 - Queen of Louis XII of France, Mary Tudor, died.
September 7 - Elizabeth I of England is born at Greenwich Palace.
November 15 - Francisco Pizarro arrives in Cuzco.
|1534||October 13 – Pope Paul III (right) succeeds Pope Clement VII as the 220th pope. October 18 – Huguenots post placards all over France attacking the Catholic Mass, provoking a violent sectarian reaction.|
|1535||July 6 – Sir Thomas More (right), author of Utopia and one time Lord Chancellor of England, is executed for treason by King Henry VIII, after refusing to agree to Henry's decision to separate the English Church from the Roman Catholic Church.|
|June 22 – Execution of John Fisher, Cardinal and Bishop of Rochester, by order of King Henry VIII of England.|
|1536|| January 7 - Catherine of Aragon dies at Kimbolton Castle, near Peterborough|
May 2 – Anne Boleyn, second consort queen from Henry VIII, is arrested on the grounds of incest, adultery, and treason.
May 17 – the five men accused of adultery with Anne Boleyn, including her own brother George Boleyn, are executed.
May 19 – Anne Boleyn is executed by Henry VIII.
May 30 – Henry VIII of England marries Jane Seymour (right).
|1537|| January 6 – Alessandro de Medici (right) is assassinated. |
January – Bigod's Rebellion, an uprising by Roman Catholics against Henry VIII of England.
|1538|| February 24 - Archduke Ferdinand of Austria & King János Zápolyai of Hungary sign Peace of Grosswardein on this day in history. |
June 12 -James V of Scotland (right) marries Marie de Guise.
December 17 -Pope Paul III excommunicated England's King Henry VIII on this day in history.
|1539|| June 10 - Council of Trent: Paul III sends out letters to his bishops, delaying the Council due to war and the difficulty bishops had traveling to Venice.|
October 4 - King Henry VIII &Anne of Cleves (right) marry.
|1540|| June 24 - King Henry VIII divorces his 4th wife, Anne of Cleves.|
June 29 - English ex chancellorThomas Cromwell (right) sentenced as heretic.
July 9 - England's King Henry VIII 4th marriage to Anne of Cleves annulled.
|1541|| October 31 - Michelangelo Buonarroti paints "last judgement" in Sistine Chapel.|
November 9 - Queen Catharine Howard (right) confined in London Tower.
December 29 - Isabella of Poland & Archduke Ferdinand of Austria sign Treaty of Gyalu.
|1542|| November 22 - Spain delegates "New Laws" against slavery in America.|
November 24 - Battle at Solway Moss: English beat Scottish King James.
December 14 - Princess Mary (right) Stuart becomesQueen Mary I of Scotland.
|1543|| July 1 - England & Scotland sign Peace treaty of Greenwich.|
July 7 - French troops invade Luxembourg.
July 12 - England's King Henry VIII wedsCatherine Parr (right -6th & last wife).
|1544|| July 14 - English troops attack The Canal.|
July 19 -Italian War of 1542: The Siege of Boulogne began.
August 17 - Imperial/English armies occupy Saint-Dizier France.
September 18 - Charles V of Germany &Francis I (right) of France sign Peace of Crepy.
September 18 - English King Henry VIII's troops occupy Boulogne.
|1545|| August 26 - Pope Paul III names his son Pierluigi Farnese (right), Duke of Parma.|
September 8 - English earl Hertford leads retaliatory mission against Scotland.
December 13 - Council of Trent (19th ecumenical council) opens.
December 13 - Pope Paul III opens council of Trent.
|1546|| June 7 – Treaty of Ardres, also known as the Treaty of Camp, is signed, resulting in peace between England and France. |
July 10 – The Schmalkaldic War, a political struggle between imperial forces under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (right), and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, begins. Trinity College, Cambridge and Christ Church, Oxford are founded by Henry VIII of England.
|1547||January 19 - Henry Howard (right) , Earl of Surrey and famous poet, executed for treason.|
| February 20 - King Edward VI of England was enthroned following death of Henry VIII.|
March 31 - Henry II succeeds Francois I as king of France.
|1548|| July 7 – A marriage treaty is signed between Scotland and France, whereby 5-year-old Mary, Queen of Scots (right), is betrothed to the future King Francis II of France. |
August 7 – Mary, Queen of Scots, leaves for France.
October 31 – At the first sejm of King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland, deputies demand that the king renounce his wife Barbara Radziwiłł.
|1549|| June 9 - Book of Common Prayer is adopted by the Church of England.|
June 9 - England enforces Act of Supremacy.
July 17 - Jews are expelled from Ghent, Belgium.
November 1 - Anne of Austria (right), fourth wife of Philip II of Spain and mother of Philip III, born
|1550|| January 10 - 1st sitting of "Vurige Chamber" in Paris.|
Febraury 2 - English Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset, freed.
February 7 - Giovanni Maria del Monte elected Pope Julius III (right).
March 24 - France & England sign Peace of Boulogne.
April 2 - Jews are expelled from Genoa, Italy.
|1551|| July19 - Treaty of Karlsburg: arch Duke Ferdinand of Austria recognized as king of Hungary/Transylvania.|
August 14 - Turkish fleet under Dragut occupies Tripoli.
October 16 - English Edward Seymour (right) Duke of Somerset re-arrested.
December 19 - Dutch west coast hit by hurricane.
|1552|| January 12 - Dutch west coast hit by heavy storm, 100s killed.|
January 15 - France signs secret treaty with German Protestants.
January 23 - 2nd version of Book of Common Prayer becomes mandatory in England.
December 3 - Francis Xavier (right) , Jesuit missionary to India and future Saint, dies in China
|1553|| October 27 - Condemned as a heretic, Michael Servetus is burned at the stake just outside Geneva.|
November 13 - English Lady Jane Grey (right) and Bishop Cranmer accused of high treason.
|1554|| January 25 - Sir Thomas Wyatt (right) gathers an army in Kent, rebels against Queen Mary.|
January 25 - Founding of São Paulo city, Brazil.
February 9 - Battle at London: Sir Thomas Wyatt defeated.
July 24 - Queen Mary of England marries Philip, King of Spain and Naples/Jerusalem.
November 30 - England reconciles with Pope Julius III.
|1555|| February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake.|
April 9 - Marcello Cervini elected Pope Marcellus II (right).
April 11 - Joanna of Castile, Queen of Spain in name only, dies
April 17 - Siena surrenders for Spanish troops.
May 23 - Giampietro Caraffa elected Pope Paul IV.
|1556|| Sepember4 9 - Pope Paul IV (right) refuses to crown Ferdinand of Austria emperor.|
September 12 - Emperor Charles resigns, his brother Ferdinand takes over.
September 13 - Charles V & Maria of Hungary return to Spain.
September 15 - Ex-emperor Charles V retires to a monastery at Yuste, Extramadura.
|1557||June – Mary I of England (right) joins her husband Philip II of Spain in his war against France.|
| September 11 - Catholic & Lutheran theology debated in Worms. |
December 3- 1st Covenant of Scottish protestants formed.
|1558|| November 7 - French King Henry II occupies Calais.|
November 17 - Elizabeth I (right) ascends English throne upon death of Queen Mary I.
December 29 - Charles V, German emperor, buried.
|1559|| April 2 - Genoa Italy, expels Jews.|
April - Spain & France signs 2nd Treaty of Le Cateau-Cambrésis.
May 10 - Scottish Protestants under John Knox rise against queen-mother Marie de Guise (right).
May 13 - Excavated corpse of heretic David Jorisz burned in Basel.
|1560|| January 31 - Spanish King Philip II marriesElizabeth of Valois (right).|
September 25 - Spanish king Philip II names Frederik Schenck of Toutenburg, 1st archbishop of Utrecht.
|1561|| August 19 - Mary Queen of Scots arrives in Leith, Scotland to assume throne after spending 13 years in France.|
August 24 - Willliam of Orange marries duchess Anna of Saxony.
September 9 - Sermon of Poissy.
September 23 -King Phillip II of Spain (right) forbids Spanish settlements in Florida.
|1562|| March 9 - Kissing in public banned in Naples (punishable by death.|
November 25 - Lope de Vega (right), Spanish playwright and poet, born.
January 6 - By surrendering toQueen Elizabeth I of England, Earl of the Tyrone ends his first rebellion.
January 17 - Under the Edict of Saint Germain, Huguenots are recognized.
March 1- Marking the start of the First War of Religion in France, over 1,000 Huguenots are massacred by ultra-Catholics Francis, Duke of Guise in Wassy-sur Blaise. Louis I of Bourbon, Prince de Conde and Gaspard de Coligny were leading the protestant forces, that quickly seized control of Rouen, Orleans and other cities throughout France.
|1563|| July 27 - French army recaptures Le Havre.|
July 29 - League of High Nobles routes King Philip II.
August 17 - King Charles IX (right) of France (13) declared an adult.
August 30 - Jewish community of Neutitschlin Moravia expelled.
September 8 - Maximilian chosen King of Hungary.
|1564|| February 21 - Philip II routes cardinal Granvelle to Franche-Comte.|
March 13 - Cardinal Granvelle flees Bruss
February 15- Italian astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei, born.
February 26- English poet and dramatist, Christopher Marlowe(baptized).
April 26- English poet and dramatist, William Shakespeare (baptized) believed to be born on April 23.
April 27- Was born Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland.
April- French naturalist, Pierre Belon, (murdered).
May 2- Italian humanist, Cardinal Rodolfo Pio da Carpi, dies.
May 27- French Protestant reformer John Calvin, dies.
July 27- Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I, dies.
July 31- Viceroy of New Spain,, Luis de Velasco, dies.